The Great French, Dutch, Spanish, English YANKEE DOODLE Robberies Turtle Island Invasion and Occupation

The King’s Woods | Sustaining Piscataqua…/the-kingswoods

Nov 29, 2012 · The first royal governor of the colony of New Hampshire was John Wentworth … Wentworth was very successful during his time as surveyor of the Kings Woods.

The Greatest Robbery of All Time


Turtle Island Invaded


The ANCIENT MAPS TELL THE TALE … The  ROYALS  Cartographers  Clearing reveal the Progressions  and Thefts

See  THE DECOLONIAL  WORLD ATLAS  for a World Wide  Understanding

List of  Maps  and  Super  Illustrations / Books

Images for Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti

Visscher Map New Netherlands

Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands

Lucini  map of the New Netherlands

DeLaet’s   Beschryvinge van west Indien

The ROYALS   Invade, Conquer and Occupy  the First Nations  Lands AMERICA IS NO BETTER

Canada Was ALSO Overrun

History of Colonial America 1497 – 1763 – YouTube

Jul 22, 2008 – Uploaded by Daniel Izzo

… city in the new world in Santo Domingo Dominican Republic 5 years later, another European contries started …


K1A 0A2


On behalf of all Tribal Nations, allegedly “UNDER” the domination of “THE CROWN and CANADA”, we demand that “YOU” provide;
– a certified true copy of the BNA Act (British North America Act) with the Seal of HRM Queen Victoria.

– The third reading and passing of the Dominion of Canada Constitution, 1867.
– The copies of all “PROVINCES” signatures, as well as the names and signatures of all the Tribal Chiefs of the Tribal Nations who agreed to this.
We expect a reply within 30 days of receipt of this Demand and forwarded to the signed below.
Documents of this importance should be easily accessible and are to be forwarded in the time frame given. 

Yours truly,
ninigiwaydinnoong (headman)
Pimastan G., (clan mother ); Stephen S., (Chippewas of Rama); Margaret V. F., Thomas F. Sr., (Algonquins of Temagami); John H., (Chimnissing Anishinabek); Fabian Y., (Chippewas of Rama); Ian B. ; Gordon B. ; Mike D. (elder); William (hereditary chief); Larry G. (hereditary chief); Russell J. ; Bill M. (war chief); Victor N.; David N. ; Elie N. (elder); Clarence R.; Elvis N. ; Leonard C.; Helen C. ; Sonia C. ; Maurice B. ; Kristin A.; and an additional 2,000 others.




Truth Before Dishonor


The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC

Joseph Gilbert Manning – 2012 – ‎History

13 But Ptolemy’s taking of Egypt in 323 BC was more than a land grab. Ptolemaic governance had profound, long-term consequences for Egyptian history. It also resulted in the formation of ancient Egypt’s legacy to the West. Egyptology, as Bowman has recently emphasized, has typically been a field closed off from, and …

Territoriality vs. Land grabbing | WRM in English

Apr 30, 2013 – When it comes to land grabbing, specifically, this is something that has occurred throughout history, carried out by powerful forces, from the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, the politically powerful aristocrats of ancient Greece, the patrician families of the Roman Empire, the feudal lords of Europe, China, Japan …

Land grab, the values of land: new and old patterns of land appropriation

by M Van Aken – ‎2014

The seminar was one of three workshops on Land Grab coordinated by SIII, an interdisciplinary network of several universities in Milan organizing research … slacker in time – or in the construction of pharaonic public works characterized by a strong social impact as, for instance, the hydroelectric power

Germany and the Germans from an American Point of View

Price Collier – 1913 – ‎Germany

We can never get on if we are to introduce the discussion of the lines of every new battle-ship by arguments as to the sea-worthiness of the ark. Those of us who control a quarter of the habitable globe, and the inhabitants thereof, are much too busy to discuss the legal aspects of the land– grabbing of the Pharaohs.

The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Middle East and North Africa

Martin Keulertz, ‎Eckart Woertz – 2017 – ‎Science

How not to think of landgrabbing: Three critiques of large-scale investments in farmland. Journal of Peasant Studies, 38, 249– 279. doi:10.1080/03066150.2011.559008. … The water regime for orchards and plantations in pharaonic Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Antiquity, 80,57–80. Eyre, C. (1999). The village economy in …

Poverty and the International Economic Legal System: Duties to the …

Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer – 2013 – ‎Business & Economics

According to the Torah (the founding legal and ethical religious texts of Iudaism), the Iewish Diaspora arrived in pharaonic Egypt after repeated harvest failures in Canaan. The long journey back to … He issued the first and most remarkable warning against what today is called ‘land grabbing‘ (Isa. 5, 8): What sorrow for you …

The Overland Monthly – Page 80 – Google Books Result

1898 – ‎Indians of North America

A HUNTERS’ PARADISE BETWEEN the ancient kingdom of Abyssinia in the northeast corner of Africa and the still more ancient domain of the Pharaohs, lies a wide stretch of country which has hitherto escaped seizure and partition by the landgrabbing nations of Europe. As the neglected territory is a rich one, its oversight …


EURO TRASH did the very SAME CRAP in Europe and Britain for 1000s of Years. It’s how EMPIRES and KINGDOMS were STOLEN.

colonization – How did Europeans really conquer the Americas …

Oct 22, 2014 – This is a huge question, one that cannot possibly be covered entirely in a single answer on a website. However, the three points you listed in your question can be addressed, and I’ve tried to do so below. Please keep in mind that even these could each have whole books written about them, so I’m 

Spain and America: From Reconquest to Conquest – North Carolina …

In the early 700s, Berber Muslims from North Africa, often called Moors , had conquered nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula. Over the following seven and a half centuries, the Christian kingdoms to the north gradually retook control of the peninsula, and by 1300, Muslims controlled only Granada, a small region in the south of …


This was the beginning of European settlement and and conquest of the Americas, in which libraries of literature and personal accounts have been created. 1513 – Discovery of the Pacific … Cortes used a tactic used in Mexico to conquer the city, and that was to capture the head of state, Atahualpa. The small number of …

The Exploration and Conquest of the New World | Boundless US History

Settlements in present-day Florida and Georgia created tension with Spanish conquistadors, who afterconquering Caribbean lands, would begin to expand northwards in search of new territory. From the middle of the 15th century forward, France tried to establish several other colonies throughout NorthAmerica that failed …


European Colonial Empires 1492-2008

Historical timeline of territories colonized by European powers, the United States and Japan from 1492-2008. Colonial powers and empires shown in this animat…


500 Years of European Colonialism

In 1492, when the Americas were discovered, a new era of European-based colonialism set fourth which eventually saw the continent control most of the World’s…

The Great Adirondacks Heist ….. REEs Minerals and Mobsters …

The Great Adirondacks Heist ….. REEs Minerals and Mobsters; … The Great Adirondacks Heist ….. REEs Minerals and … Military know about the REEs and Minerals


Being  Noble   Requires Honesty and Integrity





The  Ugly  Truth and The Colonia

My  Ancient  Saxon Tribe  I am Son of  Swamp  Fox  of the Vikin



Most Invading,  Occupying Whites  LIKE ……  “Governor Cuomo and his supporters not only ignore the past, they wish to exterminate it, erasing the historical realities which have shaped …..   the Empire State.” 

STOLEN  LAND  Custom, Policy and Practice

All  the  Spanish, Dutch,  French and English as well as  USA Inc.  STAINS need to be  REMOVED  from  Turtle Island.   The  SAVAGE  American Holocaust needs to be EXPOSED for the Genocide and  Land  Wealth Grab it has  ALWAYS BEEN.  The  European and American KINGS be  DAMNED


AUTHOR’S  NOTE ….  Land Scamming is  Felonious


See  THE DECOLONIAL  WORLD ATLAS  for a World Wide  Understanding

List of  Maps  and  Super  Illustrations / Books

Images for Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti

Visscher Map New Netherlands

Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands

Lucini  map of the New Netherlands

DeLaet’s   Beschryvinge van west Indien

Doctor Holden states that the lake had four names, namely, An-di-a-ta-roc-te,13 given it by the Iroquois according to Father Jogues, and meaning “the place where the lake contracts,” Can-i-de-ri-oit,14 “the tail of the lake” (Champlain), supposed to be a Mohawk term, Lac du St. Sacrement, “lake of the blessed sacrement,” {sic} given it by Father Jogues in 1646,15 and Lake George, in honor of the reigning monarch, bestowed by Major General William Johnson in 1755, in honor of his king.16






Good Ol  Zahniser and His  Chums like Rockefellers



Eduardo Hochschild Net Worth – TheRichest…/men/eduardo-hochschild-net-worth

Eduardo Hochschild Net WorthTheRichest … Today, Eduardo Hochschild sits as the Chairman of the Board of Cementos Pacasmayo and Hochschild Mining.

See  Hochschild   Zahniser  Rockefeller Rothschilds  and  etc.  IMetals  NYCO Barton Mining  Et  Al

Hochschild Mining – Official Site

We are a leading underground precious metals producer focusing on high grade silver and gold deposits, with almost 50 years’ operating experience in the Americas.


500  Years of  RACKETEERING

The Sophistries of The  BLACK  ROBES

The Sophisms  of  Slavery


The VAST Treasure Trove of Military, Industrial and Strategic Materials NO LONGER A SECRET

For  Your  Mothers  and  the  Teachers

The Treasure Trove is NO LONGER A SECRET

Further, Adirondack Wild expects that scientific surveys be done on Forest Preserve affected by a proposed amendment to determine if the lands harbor valuable natural resources or wildlife habitats. Those scientific surveys require time to complete and the results considered, considerably more time than a constitutional convention would allow.

“On balance, the legislative process is much preferred to a convention because of the time two legislatures allow to consider, deliberate, study and decide if exceptions to our irreplaceable Forest Preserve are in the public’s interest,” Adirondack Wild’s Gibson concluded.


The Doctrine of Discovery in U.S. Law

In 1823, the Christian Doctrine of Discovery was quietly adopted into U.S. law by the Supreme Court in the celebrated case, Johnson v. McIntosh (8 Wheat., 543). Writing for a unanimous court, Chief Justice John Marshall observed that Christian European nations had assumed “ultimate dominion” over the lands of America during the Age of Discovery, and that – upon “discovery” – the Indians had lost “their rights to complete sovereignty, as independent nations,” and only retained a right of “occupancy” in their lands. In other words, Indians nations were subject to the ultimate authority of the first nation of Christendom to claim possession of a given region of Indian lands. [Johnson:574; Wheaton:270-1]


The Empire’s Giant  Collectivist  SOCIALIST  Communism 

The  CONservation   CON    Land  Rustling  101


Freehold  Leasehold  Fee Simple  Rents and the EMPIRE Patroons


The Longest Running Crime Scene  Imaginable




MONETIZING  THE  BLUE LINE  Kha  Ching  Kha Ching  for the  Well  Connected  Who Own the  Banks and Buy the  Government



by and far  STOLEN  First Nations Land

Possessory Title   versus  Occupation by  Force

The COLONIZATION    (   See  Roman  Colonia  )

THE  ENGLISH  VERSION OF  ”  Indian Territory  “

Message to the  Warren ounty and New York Bar and the Glens Falls  Banksters  INTERNATIONAL PAPER  was Your Ticket to the Witham Property


To  Hell  With  the  ALBANY  LAW  SHOOL  and  the  EMPIRE

The MARAUDING  THEIVES  and the Four  Inns  of  Court


Templar  Honor Tales and Turtle Island  AKA   THE TRUTH


BRAINWASHED  AMERICA  ……  FLUORIDE  ,  The Indian Lake Project,  The  Children Lake George …  RESIDENTIAL  SCHOOLS

 New Netherlands,   New  Spain,  New  France,  New  ENGLAND  and  the  USA  Inc.   An Invasion of  GREED  ,    WAR  for  the  Spoils …..  A Giant CRIME  SCENE

The  Real Americaamericanindian

TO  [CONSEAL] A FRAUD IS A FRAUD,  Kwassush  ( Wesley  Dick )


Native America, Discovered and Conquered takes a fresh look at American history through the lens of the Doctrine of Discovery—the legal basis that Europeans and Americans used to lay claim to the land of the indigenous peoples they “discovered.”

Environmental  COLONIA  and Fabian Socialists   Environmental  CONservation

Rothschild Natural Resources Corp,  Hochschild Mining,  Vanderbilts  Biltmore,  Rockefellers  SOCIALIST EMPIRE STATE

Green Nazi

Adirondack Life – Volume 31 – Page 38

2000 – ‎Snippet view – ‎More editions

additions and alterations with skilled attention YESTERYEARS lity and detailing to enhance your Adirondack lifestyle. … From 1895 to 1900 Prestonia Mann served on the American Fabian Society’sexecutive committee and edited its magazine, The American Fabian. The society advocated the gradual societal change from individualism to collective socialism, not by revolution, but by local legislation.







Understanding NYS Tax Payments On State Lands – The Adirondack ……/debunking-the-enduring-myth-that-the-state-does-…
Jul 8, 2013 – Historic Forest Preserve Lands The idea that the State of New York does not pay taxes on state lands is an enduring myth in the Adirondack …

Myths & Reality 3: The state does not pay taxes on state lands and ……/myths-reality-3-the-state-does-not-pay-taxes-on-state-lands-a…
Jul 14, 2013 – Myth: The State of New York does not pay taxes on Forest Preserve or … Preserve and conservation easement lands in the Adirondack Park.

New York’s Forest Preserve – NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation › Lands and Waters › Fore
Of the 4.7 million acres of land managed by the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), nearly 3 million acres, or 61%, are classified as Forest Preserve. … Protected as “forever wild” by Article XIV of the New York State Constitution, New York’s Forest Preserve lands have …


The Best Way to Loot a  Planet  is to  OWN  ONE

Environmental  Confiscation /   Conversion and the State   WHERE DID IT  ALL  BEGIN

Cherry Picking the Planet for  the LUSHEST  OF THE  LUSH ……  The History of  COLONIALISM  for  PROFIT  and the  AGE OF DISCOVERY    ……    ADVENTURES  IN  PLANETARY  LOOTING


The endless excuses for  INVADING  Other’s  Natural Resources the Banksters   WET DREAM

  1. S. Sörlin and P. Warde, ‘The Problem of the Problem of Environmental History’ Environmental History 12, 1 (2007), 107–130.Reverse footnote link
  2. W. G. Hoskins, The Making of the English Landscape (London, 1955). Reverse footnote link
  3. Richard Grove, Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600–1860(Cambridge, 1994).Reverse footnote link
  4. William Beinart and Lotte Hughes, Environment and Empire(Oxford, 2007).Reverse footnote link
  5. Paul Warde, Ecology, Economy and State Formation in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge, 2006).Reverse footnote link
  6. I. G. Simmonds, Environmental History of Great Britain from 10,000 Years Ago to the Present (Edinburgh, 2001).Reverse footnote link
  7. John Sheail, An Environmental History of Twentieth-Century Britain(Basingstoke, 2002).Reverse footnote link
  8. B. W. Clapp, An Environmental History of Britain Since the Industrial Revolution (London, 1994).Reverse footnote link
  9. E. A. Wrigley, ‘The Supply of Raw Materials in the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 15, 1 (1962), 1–16.Reverse footnote link
  10. E. L. Jones, ‘The Agricultural Origins of Industry’, Past and Present, 40 (1968), 58–71.Reverse footnote link
  11. S. Mosley, The Chimney of the World: a History of Smoke Pollution in Victorian and Edwardian Manchester (Cambridge, 2001).Reverse footnote link
  12. Peter Thorsheim, Inventing Pollution: Coal Smoke and Culture in Britain Since 1800 (Athens, O., 2006).Reverse footnote link
  13. B. Luckin, Questions of Power: Electricity and Environment in Inter-war Britain (New York, 1990).Reverse footnote link
  14. J. Winter, Secure from Rash Assault: Sustaining the Victorian Environment (Berkeley, Calif., 1999)

Breaking News  THOUSANDS  of  US  Military 


Veterans  Ask  First  Nations  To FORGIVE   Military  Sins

Watch  Video

Salon’s Charlie May was at Standing Rock as protesters celebrated the recent #DAPL news. Veterans, including Wes Clark Jr., bowed and asked Native elders for forgiveness.

Read more:

All  those  STOLEN  First Nations  Lands    NEW  York  NEW  England  Stolen  is Stolen

The Custom Policy  and  Practice  of  STEALING  LAND  has been ongoing  in  NEW  York /   EMPIRE  State  for  nearly  500  Years


My  Mother And  Dad …..  Raised Me to tell the  truth ……  They  were Great Parents


Clifford  B. Witham  II           Anita Farmilo  Witham


ALBANY  NEW  YORK   …….   It’s  time FULL    More  and More and MoreLAND   Investigations   …….   The  Albany  Corporations   DEC’s  THEFTS     Revealed    …….


More and More   MoreLAND    Rackets   EXPOSED

Message  to  NEW  York  NEW  England

Your  More and More and More and More and More and MoreLAND    Cons  Swindles   are  EXPOSED   …….   The  GREAT  NORTHWAY   is   Outed  ……..   EVCON /   DEC  and  the  Great  Realty  /  Land  Grabs    EXPOSED  …….    Schneiderman  and  Cuomo,  Schumer and Little   the  WHOLE    EVCON   ……..   

The  More and More  and  MORE Land    CON    is   Revealed



The  Royal Conservation LAND  GRABBING  begins   1584

Stuffing Their Pockets with the  EXPLOITED  Natural Resources




The  Green  Swindle   is  a   GIANT  TRAIN  ROBBERY

Forest Laws in the Middle Ages | Sarah Woodbury 

… and wetlands) were not exclusive to the king or … were harsh, forbidding not only the hunting of game with in the forest, … Forest Laws in the Middle …

The NEVER ENDING STORY of the Greatest Looting  EVER   …….

THE RACKET has been playing out since the PHARAOH’s QUAISIS and the PUBLICANS of the WICKED that live in the HIGH PLACES. The BANKSTERS are NOTHING NEW and the WHORE POLITICIANS are NOT either ………    The Lovers of  Money  NEVER  QUIT   …….    More  and  More  and  More  and  More LAND AMERICA’s   Megga   LAND  GRAB   

FLIM  FLAMMED  AMERICA   You Have  Been  Had


The  TRUTH  IS ……..  You’ve Been   INDOCTRINATED


Properties of Violence 

David Correia – 2013 – ‎Preview – ‎More editions

Newly opened territorial banks competed to fund speculativeinvestments in even more rail spurs, larger land purchases, … Huge investments in resource extraction and real property by wealthy European speculators and East Coast bankers … of speculation in New Mexico drew the attention of the General Land Office, which investigated corruption and land fraud … He considered it a “systematic robbery of the Government” to conclude that land grant heirs owned the vast common lands.

COINCIDENCE   think again

History of the American Bar Association – Lectric Law Library

History of the American Bar Association – from the ‘Lectric Law Library’s stacks. … The ABA was founded on August 21, 1878, in Saratoga Springs, New York, …

They  Poisoned  Lake ChamplainChamplain

The   Turtle Island  Rapes

LEX   REX   by   Fiat  and  Decree   ….   Because  THE  KING IS  THE  LAW   and   George  Washington’s    Gang  were   MASONS

BREAKING   STORY      Very  Timely

Very important step in the way we move forward walking the walk. Good read.

“You raised the bar for this country, for all humanity, for forgiveness,” she told the Amish. She referred to those Amish who immediately forgave the shooter and supported his family following the massacre at Nickel Mines Amish school in Bart Township nearly a decade ago.

“As we came in here, the wind blew really hard, and it came through the trees,” Hansen said. “And I believe that the spirits of our old ones came by the wind, and they spoke, and this is a good day.”

A local Amish bishop recently met with representatives of a dozen American Indian tribes. He and other Amish apologized for the way their ancestors treated Native…|By JACK BRUBAKER | LNP Columnist

The story of  GLEN  LAKE

“Indian trails, military roads, and waterwheels: Cultural and ecologica …

by PE Derby – ‎2008 – ‎Related articles

This is a study of a small community in upstate New York now known as Glen Lake. It is a diachronic study of how changing human populations, informed by their cultural worldviews, interacted with the natural environment. The timeframe spans the history of human habitation from the first Native Americans at the lake, …

Tracing Northern Warren County’s Earliest Roads – – The Adirondack …

Feb 19, 2015 – In Echoes I suggested the old military route may have run along the East Branch of the Sacandaga River (along today’s Route 8), possibly using what is today called “The Old Military Trail”. It turned easterly down Bartman Road southwest of Bakers Mills, to Armstrong Road, then along GarnetLake Road to …

Some background on the  GRAND  LIES  and  AGENDA  of  New York’s   PATROONS  …….   Native People  and  Their  history had to be  ERASED ….  Son of  Swamp Fox    

The Big Fish of the Little  Pond

AKA  The Bartlett Pontiff Stewart and Rhodes Way

The Historical Facts of The GREAT NORTH WAY


Environmental Conservation   My Ass

Total Control for the  1%  OLIGARCHS

and  lots and lots and lots of  BUFFALO  BILLIONS

WORKING  THE   More  and  More  and  MoreLAND  Machine


Rockefellers,   Hochschilds,   ROTHSCHILDS  Forest Preserve Law  and  the  Norman  Kings   RANGERS  …..   Some   History

Royal forest – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

royal forest is an area of land with different definitions in England, … the King’s sole rights as enshrined in forest law. … royal hunting forest, …

NYS  Forest Rangers the Empire  STATE   Gestopo


The NEW  GREEN  in  Albany

The More and More and MoreLAND  Money Machine

The  Age of Discovery,  Manifest   Destiny  …….   The  Royal  Patents  and  Grants    ALL   Chicanery  and ILLUSION   …….  Spain  France  England  the  Netherlands   and  Russia   never  possessed  the  ALLODIAL   TITLE  ……   The  First  Nations  Possession  for  many  many  many  CENTURIES   ………   Prove  That   …….    Here’s  some  of  the  HOCUS   POCUS   by  the  Great  White  Fathers  ……..  FRAUD   ON   STEROIDS  

Environmental  CONservation    As Old  as Robin Hood and The Great North Way

The Empire State’s  

Great  Northway  through the FOREST


The great property swindle: why do so few people in Britain own so much of our land?

The myth spun about Britain is that land is scarce. It is not – landowners are paid to keep it off the market.

Modern British history, excluding world wars and the loss of empire, is a record of two countervailing changes, one partly understood, one not understood at all. The partly understood change is the urbanisation of society to the point where 90 per cent of us in the United Kingdom live in urban areas. Hidden inside that trans­formation is the shift from a society in which, less than a century and a half ago, all land was owned by 4.5 per cent of the population and the rest owned nothing at all. Now, 70 per cent of the population has a stake in land, and collectively owns most of the 5 per cent of the UK that is urban. But this is a mere three million out of 60 million acres.

Through this transformation, the heirs to the disenfranchised of the Victorian era have inverted the relationship between the landed and the landless. This has happened even while huge changes have occurred in the 42 million acres of rural countryside. These account for 70 per cent of the home islands and are the agricultural plot. From being virtually the sole payers of such tax as was levied in 1873 (at fourpence in the 240p pound), the owners of Britain’s agricultural plot are now the beneficiaries of an annual subsidy that may run as high as £23,000 each, totalling between £3.5bn and £5bn a year. Urban dwellers, on the other hand, pay about £35bn in land-related taxes. Rural landowners receive a handout of roughly £83 per acre, while urban dwellers pay about £18,000 for each acre they hold, an average of £1,800 per dwelling, the average dwelling standing on one-tenth of an acre.

Britain urgently needs land reform, but there is a problem. The “tenants” of between 30 and 50 per cent of the Home Island land mass are unknown. I use the word tenant deliberately. Here’s why. In a written response to a question by Andrew George MP in February 2009, Bridget Prentice, a parliamentary undersecretary at the Ministry of Justice, replied, “The Crown is the ultimate owner of all land in England and Wales (including the Isles of Scilly): all other owners hold an estate in land. Although there is some land that the Crown has never granted away, most land is held of the Crown as freehold or leasehold.”


The Roman Empire State’s  

New Netherlands,   New  Spain,  New  France,  New  ENGLAND  and  the  USA  Inc.   An Invasion of  GREED  ,    WAR  for  the  Spoils …..  A Giant CRIME  SCENE

Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises, Sixth Edition

Chicago’s reputation for real estate booms was such that Berlin, overindulging in real estate speculation in the euphoria of victory over … The lenders to the real estate speculators, and especially the bank lenders, incur large loan losses.

Great  Northway  through the FOREST


“And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul.” -Matthew 10:28

THE RAPE OF THE MIND: The Psychology of Thought Control, Menticide, and Brainwashing, by Joost A. M. Meerloo, M.D., Instructor in Psychiatry, Columbia University Lecturer in Social Psychology, New School for Social Research, Former Chief, Psychological Department, Netherlands Forces, published in 1956, World Publishing Company.

This book attempts to depict the strange transformation of the free human mind into an automatically responding machine a transformation which can be bought about by some of the cultural undercurrents in our present day society as well as by deliberate experiments in the service of a political ideology.

Note To Glens Falls Post Star ..... Nobody loved Lake George More than Mr.Clifford and Anita Witham and the Witham Family. 
The Swamp and East Shores Harbour  being the proof.  This is My Story for  Mother and  Dad  ( all rights  reserved JW )

In The Beginning Pin Hole “A”

The First Dam  Harnessing The HP  of the MILL  POND

The Largest EPA  Super  Fund  Site  in  America


Land Grabbing and Lying Government on STERIODS …… The Government Gone WILD……


LAKE LEVEL  IS  8+ Feet  Higher  Then NORMAL


Lake George The MILL POND

8 –  10   Feet   Deeper Than  Normal

Dam ” A ” Fluctuates & Manipulates / Flushes the Lake

Mother and Dad

The  Destruction was  INTENTIONAL


Stealing and Grabbing Land

The LAND Grabbing was invented in the EAST …… NOT The West ……. RUN the BONDS ….. Follow the MONEY ……. The UN and Canada are FUNDING THESE Projects as a way to impose Globalism , Agenda 21 and the NWO on America . The Trails aim is to create OPEN BORDERS …….


The CONservation CON  the FASCIST   Communism in New York

The Cushy Cushy Land Swaps and Environmental Land Swindles



The  Conservation CON of NYS EVCON

The Importation from the Old World to the New World of the Land Grant and Land Patent LAWS of the Old World Order ushered in the Confiscatory Land Grabbing of the Old World Kingdoms. Historical Record Reveals that the Occupation of the First Nations for countless Eons Vests in them Possessory Title to ALL the Lands known today as the Americas.

The Birth of the Conservation Con    and the Great American Land Grab

Patents and Grants given by those WHO DO NOT HAVE ALLODIAL TITLES to the Land Given creates a VOID Patent and a VOID Grant. The Barristers and Lawyers along with Their Scribes KNOW this is a simple fact, One CAN NOT GIVE what One does not OWN.

There has never been a Grantor alive able to give to a Grantee a more Superior Title than that which the GRANTOR actually POSSESSES.   Facts are Stubborn Things.

JBW ….. Son of Swamp Fox 8-8-2016

See Ownership and Title …. Black’s Law Dictionary, Ballentine’s Law Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Webster’s Dictionary. Nobody can Convey Title to that which They have NO Title To. The Ancient Occupation of the Americas is an OBVIOUS Possessory Title to the First Nations. JBW

Like IMetals of  Paris France ( Rothschilds  Whitehall NY ) operating in the Adirondacks with Barton Mining and Pelham and all the others,  Finch Pruyn and International Paper ,  Hochschilds and Rothschilds and Roosevelts, Delanos, Rockefellers, Durants, Peabodies,  Pitcarins,  Astors, DuPonts , Vanderbilts

The More and More and MoreLAND  SCAMS

The  CON  in  Conservation


How many people on the street, even in areas facing preservationist pressure, would have any idea of what a “land bridge” is? A person would know what a…

Properties of Violence – Google Books Result

David Correia – 2013 – ‎Business & Economics

… extraction and real property by wealthy European speculators and East Coast … Between 1865 and 1900, 1,500 British companies invested enormous sums in … of the General Land Office, which investigated corruption and land fraud in New …

A Blood  Curse  Upon the Land
Please visit our interactive map: invasionofamerica.ehistory.orgBetween 1776 and 1887, the United States seized over 1.5 billion acres from America’s indige…
The Best Way to Financially Gang Rape a Nation and get away with it is to BUY all the Democrats and Republicans …… Looting Trillions allows You to do that …. JBW

The age OLD Land  Grabbing Con …. The Actual Motive  Behind  AGENDA  21 ….   NYS  Evcon  and  DEC  What a  Racket


Panic of 1796–97 – Wikipedia

The Panic of 1796–1797 was a series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets that led to broader commercial downturns in both Great Britain and the United States. In the U.S., problems first emerged when a land speculation bubble burst in 1796. The crisis deepened when the Bank of England suspended specie payments …

Panic of 1837 – Wikipedia

The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession … Speculative lending practices in western states, a sharp decline in cotton … The prices of land, cotton, and slaves rose sharply in these years.

Panic of 1819 – Wikipedia

The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States followed by … As prices soared for agricultural goods, a speculative agrarian land boom ensued in the South and West United States, encouraged by liberal …

Speculation – Wikipedia


Speculation is the purchase of a good with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date. More formally, speculationis also the practice of engaging in risky financial …. Such financialregulation is often enacted in response to a crisis as was the case with the Bubble Act 1720, which was passed by the British …

1837: The Hard Times – Baker Library – Harvard Business School

Harvard Business School


Most speculation concerned western land opened to settlement after Indian removals, but northeastern … Developments in bankingcompounded the crisis.

Andrew Jackson, Banks, and the Panic of 1837 – The Lehrman Institute

The land rush had seen the number of banks grow to more than 1,000, with each … as the Bank’s pressure was intensified by a similar financial crisis in Britain, … wrote: “According to some sources, Jackson made a mint in land speculation, …

Panic of 1819: The First Major U.S. Depression – The Globalist

Feb 10, 2009 – How have past financial crises affected the history of the United States? … tracts of western lands, fueling real estate speculation funded by bank notes. … “The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave” by Jefferson Morley …

The Tumultuous 19th Century – ThinkAdvisor

Jan 1, 2010 – That fueled land speculation, which Jackson tried to curb by issuing … 18, 1873 with the collapse of Philadelphia financial firm Jay Cooke & Co.

Disasters, Accidents, and Crises in American History: A Reference …

Ballard C. Campbell – 2008 – ‎Accidents

To stop land speculation, he issued the “Specie Circular” in 1836, which specified that purchases of public land had to be paid with specie, not bank notes.

The 100 Most Important American Financial Crises: An Encyclopedia of …

Quentin R. Skrabec Jr. – 2014 – ‎Business & Economics

Credit tightened throughout the nation as banks attempted to reduce their exposure to speculative land purchases. The firm of Robert Morris and John Nicholson …

The Reality of the Land Grabbing

The real Savages came from Europe and the Far East, Middle East to the Americas ….. Who is the Savage ?

For the new project, please visit This animation shows all important battles that took place over the last ten centuries. The sizes…
The SAVAGES and Land Wars over 6000 Years BEFORE The Cancer and Virus of Warring for Land Was Imported to the Americas …. The Depravity and Debauchery was as EVIL and WICKED as anything in history …….
Finally! Enjoy! And before you comment, yes, I know that Austria wasn’t part of the Warsaw pact during the cold war. Also, NAPOLEON IS IN THIS.
The  First  Nations Were Hardly the SAVAGES
Dear  FBI /  DOJ  …….   For  many  many  many  TRILLIONS  of  reasons  …… The  US  and  State  Governments  are  COMPLETELY  PAID  OFF  ……  Campaign  Contributions   BOUGHT  THE  SYSTEM   …….

Custom  Policy and  Practice  an  Organized  Crime

STEALING LAND  a  National  Custom Policy and Practice  …….  UNCLE SAM’S   Real Estate  Scams ……

The Vast Land and Banking Swindles in America are  LEGENDARY


Land Grab America  …. 

The Banksters Brood Government Gone Wild

The Great American Land Rape …. WE ALWAYS GET IT CHEAP ….The American Way make sure to visit

video_00398     The Great American Land Rape …. WE ALWAYS GET IT CHEAP …. The American Way



The  Royal  Swindles …… The Albany  Corporation and the Great Gold Digger /  the  Great  Prospector     Ver Plank  Colvin  SWINDLE

The Good Old Albany Corporation, imported from Great Britain mostly ( Son of Swamp Fox Knows ) , This is where the Plans and Foundations of the General Land Office and the Department of the Treasury ( Revenue Collection Service ) were spawn. The many functions of the Revenue Collection of the Newly Formed Confederation of Colonies / States began what We know today as the USA Incorporated with It’s President General ( Commander In Chief ) Funny huh DC would have a President / General known as a Commanding Chief …….. These WIKIMEDIA Notes are used ALBEIT Vetting of the Information is strongly urged. GOOD OLD ALBANY and the ALBANY CONGRESS ……

The Albany Congress (1754), also known as, “The Conference of Albany” was a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of the…
Yes  Albany Targeted My Family for Thier Lands  ......  Judson Brown Witham  Son of the Swamp Fox a free man  ... all rights  reserved

Kings and Emperors Pharaohs and Queens

Mining History and the Kings of the Earth


The Good Old PATROONS, ALBANY CORPORATION and YES NYS Gov William Tryon …It’s always been a GIANT LAND GRAB


The CONservation CON  the FASCIST   Communism in New York

The Cushy Cushy Land Swaps and Environmental Land Swindles



Treasure & The Empire ….. From Pharaoh to the BLM. How Agenda 21 Has Turned into a GIANT Heist …….




AGENDA 21 the ULTIMATE Cash Cow / TAX Scheme EVER


Who owns the land? – North Carolina Digital History – Learn NC

The traditional view of European-Indian land deals is that Europeans tricked the …. In America in the 1600s and 1700s, there was so much open land — and so …

The Lord Proprietors

The Grand  Dominion

Orgies of the Biltmore

Bohemian East


 INSIDE JOB America Raped For




Judith Koll Healey – 2013 – ‎Biography & Autobiography

As Frederickbegan his lumber career in the mid-fifties, public knowledge of, or interest … under John Muir’sleadership, Gifford Pinchot joined the Biltmore estate …

You are a SLAVE an American Tale

 [PDF]On the taking of Indian lands – National Humanities Center…/text7/indianlands.pdf

National Humanities Center

and European Americans, 1707-1765 … through the 1700s, are driven by the less dramatic … leaders – document the loss of Indian land to the colonists,.

The Indians MUST GO

The treaty established terms under which the entire Cherokee Nation ceded its territory in the southeast and agreed to move west to the Indian Territory. Although the treaty was not approved by the Cherokee National Council nor signed by Principal Chief John Ross, it was amended and ratified by the U.S. Senate in March 1836, and became the legal basis for the forcible removal known as the Trail of Tears.

The Treaty of New Echota (7 Stat. 488) was a treaty signed on December 29, 1835, in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States…

The taking of the land!

 The Royals AGAIN

NAVAJO – HOPI Land dispute, Big Mountain Navajos to be displaced; role of Peabody Coal.  Brief historical overview, maps. links to Hopi and Big Mountain…

More and More and MoreLAND

The Blue Mountain Mafia

Biltmore   Mob

Patrick H
Feds are now targeting Indian land in Washington’s latest massive land grab, in an effort designed to kill off Indian cattle ranchers.

The Zahniser Gang


Oregon Wild – The Conservation AllianceThe Conservation …

Adirondack Council · Alaska Wilderness League · American Rivers · Audubon … Our grant supports Oregon Wild’s Mount Hood Wilderness Campaign to protect …



Ronald Reagan A Time For Choosing 1964 Warns Of NWO Obama Executive Order 13575 sets up…


This breaks down Native history pretty well…

Aaron Huey’s effort to photograph poverty in America led him to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, where the struggle of the native Lakota people — appallin…

Adirondack Wild: Friends of the Forest Preserve


Adirondack Wild: Friends of the Forest Preserve, Inc. is a non-profit organization created to encourage environmental stewardship and preservation of the …

The Rise Of Global Governance -2

… to which its Director, Howard Zahniser had devoted five years of constant lobbying. …. Another tell-tale characteristic of socialist/communist philosophy is the …

PBS’s The American Experience…/pbss-the-a..

American Historical Association

… author Aldo Leopold, and conservationist Howard Zahniser—resulted in the … This is a film portrait of an American family active in the American Communist …


Born in Gun Fire ……. American Empire Exploiting the People and Land ……. In Honor of TARPMAN ……..



What is going to happen to the home/landowners who choose NOT to sell to the Federal Gov’t?? What level of harassment will they be forced to endure??    MORE AND MORE AND MORELAND

As much as 1,500 acres would be purchased or acquired through donation from willing landowners

Direct links to more resources:

● 2-page Highlights of the proposal (PDF-1.16MB)
● Proposed Refuge Acquisition Focus Area maps
● Frequently Asked Questions about Refuge land acquisition (PDF-665KB)
● Media releases
New Hampshire
New York
Rhode Island

Dominion Empire and the search for  treasure

By the Book

Book digitized by Google from the library of the University of California and uploaded to the Internet…

The Crimes are Systemic

and Vastly Widespread


The  Hard and Plain Truths are RIGHT HERE …… The History Lesson is Free

Indian Land Thefts,  Homesteading Fraud, Empirical  ROYAL  Extraction of Natural Resources, Bank Looting, Government Corruption and Misprision of Felonies …… The Looting Of Nations


Carnagie,  du Pont,  Astors,  Roosevelts,  Hochschilds,  Rothschilds,  Morgans,  Werhauser,  Colchesters, Rockefellers,   etc  etc  et  al

The Zahniser Gang



the VAST Mineral Wealth of New ENGLAND is the MOTIVE Remember Folks there exists GARGANTUAN amounts of PROOF …….

Law of the Sea / Admilatry Law

United Nations Treaties Yes Yes Yes

Here’s what USA Inc BLM is really after ……..


The MASSIVE Land and Financial CONFISCATIONS in America did NOT start in the West but rather in the EAST and have been ongoing Long Long Long before RANCHERS were invented. The facts associated with People being killed for land started long before Robert LaVoy Finicum, the Bundys and Hammons were even born. TRILLIONS have been stolen and My facts are backed up with COPIAS Historical Records.

Keetah Brough's photo.

Green Nazi

Obama Admin Takes power over Private Land: Claims all Nation’s Waterways; Creeks, Wetlands,…

The Obama administration on Wednesday claimed unprecedented power over this nation’s waterways; laying claim to all of America’s creeks, wetlands, rivers,…

HAMMOND’s   Ranch may be worth  TRILLIONS

Agenda 21 population control map for USA
Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations related to “sustainable development” and was an

The Adirondack Mafia  ( The Family )

Blue Mountain Center,  Wild Center,  Adirondack Museum   Hochschild,  Rothschild, Pinochs, Shaefer, Apperson,  Langmuire, Rockefellers,  Bartletts,  DeSantis,  Stewart, Bauer,  Cuomo,  Halls ,  Lake  George  Association,   and  many  many  others  …….  The  Biltmore  More and More  Land  Plan

Appalachia – new PBS series on April 13th, 9 PM…/03/…/appalachia-new-pbs-series-on-april-9t…

Mar 27, 2009 – … since it had a premiere at the Shepherdstown American Conservation Film Festival. … Also luckily for us, Pinochethelped establish the first school of forestry at the famous BiltmoreEstate owned by the Vanderbilts in 1898.

Gifford Pinchot – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic as applied to natural resources. … of American forestry”) and founder of the BiltmoreForest School on Biltmore Estate.


Roosevelt  & Pinchot  1902

Lake  George is  8  feet  higher  Gifford  Pinchot  Explains

YUP the Good Old British and SKULL and BONES ….. The BROOD …… The Pinchots made a great fortune from lumbering and land speculation …… Family financial affairs were managed by brother Amos Pinchot, thus freeing Gifford to do the more important work of developing forest management concepts. Unlike some others in the forestry movement, Gifford’s wealth allowed him to singly pursue this goal without worry of income. …….. Gifford Pinchot was born August 11, 1865, to Episcopalian parents in Simsbury, Connecticut,[5] the son of James W. Pinchot, a successful New York City wallpaper merchant and Mary Eno, daughter of one of New York City’s wealthiest real estate developers, Amos Eno. He graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy and in 1889, Yale University,[6] where he was a member of Skull and Bones. He had a brother Amos Pinchot and a sister Antoinette (who married the diplomat Alan Johnstone).Pinchot’s approach set him apart from the other leading forestry experts, especially Bernhard E. Fernow and Carl A. Schenck. Fernow had been Pinchot’s predecessor in the United States Department of Agriculture’s Division of Forestry before leaving in 1898 to become the first Dean of the New York State College of Forestry at Cornell. Schenck was Pinchot’s successor at the Biltmore Estate (widely recognized as the “cradle of American forestry”) and founder of the Biltmore Forest School on Biltmore Estate. Their schools largely reflected their approaches to introducing forestry in the United States: Fernow advocated a regional approach and Schenck a private enterprise effort in contrast to Pinchot’s national vision.[8]


He’s  Pointing at  Biltmore  Manson

Perhaps, the men who had the most influence on his development as a forester were Sir Dietrich Brandis, who had brought forestry to the British Empire, and Sir Wilhelm Schlich, Brandis’ successor. Pinchot relied heavily upon Brandis’ advice for introducing professional forest management in the U.S. and on how to structure the Forest Service when Pinchot established it in 1905.[9]

The Rockefeller Syndicate by Eustace Mullins. – Whale

Similarly, the Rockefeller Syndicate operates under clearly defined spheres of …. It is more than likely that it was this quality which persuaded the Rothschilds to ….. Dean became director of their family foundation, the Hochschild Foundation.

The Conspiracy That Will Not Die: How the Rothschild Cabal …

Sr. Robert Gates – 2011 – ‎Religion

How the Rothschild Cabal Is Driving America Into One World Government Sr. Robert Gates … Dean was also a director of Rockefeller’s American Ag & Chem Company. … As attorney for the wealthy Hochschild family, who owned Climax …

America  Looted For Trillions

More and More and More and MoreLAND Mafia ……. The ALBANY CESSPOOL ……..

BEND  OVER  NEW  YORK   …….   You  are  SLAVES  …….

I learned a few things during all those Back Country Walk Abouts ……. The Adirondacks teach many things.


The Wildcatting has been go CENTURIES

Verplank Colvin and His Daddy the PATROON Corporate Lawyers of ALBANY COUNTY  ……  what  a  GIANT  Swindle and CON  ……  The Great PROSPECTOR


History of Albany, New York (1664–1784) – Wikipedia, the ……/History_of_Albany,_New_York_(1…


In 1754, representatives of seven British North American coloniesmet in the Stadt … During and after the Revolutionary War, Albany County saw a great increase in … As part of the Dongan Charter the city’s boundaries were fixed with Patroon …. Since Massachusetts claimed a boundary extending “from sea to sea”, which …

Province of New York – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In addition, as there was no fixed western border to the colony (a sea-to-sea grant), Albany County technically extended to the Pacific Ocean. Most of this land, …



Indian Removal | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American …


Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the President to negotiate … The Oneidas from New York and the Stockbridge people from …


Have you seen any low-flying planes in Essex or Clinton counties lately? Geologists have been searching for rare earth minerals in the Adirondacks!

Target The Land ,  Stalk the Land Owner,   AMERICA EXTRACTED
US Geologists used low-flying planes this month to identify deposits of rare earth minerals and map underground rocks in Essex and Clinton counties.

OH and don’t forget the COMMUNISM of AGENDA 21 ……… Read’em and Weep CUOMO ……….

The man who wrote two of the Adirondack Park’s most important environmental laws says state officials are breaking the rules with a plan passed earlier this…

FACT IS NYS Government is CORRUPT CORRUPT CORRUPT and run by CRIMINALS at nearly every level. The SECRET Records at DEC and the Land Swindling Crimes associated with the MASSIVE Land Use Controls and Planning and Zoning of the DEC / EVCON are nothing short of STAZI and COMMUNISM. The Socialism of the Vast Land Controls and Agenda 21 Permeates New York as so called WILDERNESS PROTECTION and ENVIRONMENTALISM tramples Private Property Rights. DEC attacked Me and Physically Assaulted Me …… Ripping From My Hands the TWO LARGE SECRET INVESTIGATIONS FILES on My Parents Anita and Clifford Witham. NYS was involved in WIPING OUT Our Marina Docks for several Years in a row and then BOUGHT THE 550 Acres or so for $10 Ten Dollars from Robert Stewart and Richard Bartlett THE TOP COURT JUDGE for NYS. Schneiderman and Cuomo and DEC Produce The Records STOP Secreting The Records ……. STOP BREAKING THE LAW.

the VAST Mineral Wealth of New ENGLAND is the MOTIVE

See More

STOP BREAKING THE LAW Cuomo and Schneiderman



Patents, Grants, Patroons and Tennant In Chiefs the American Dream a Giant Scam


America You Have Been HAD ……….

FACTS are Stubborn Things

Lake George Warriors KICK ASS ……….. KINGS COUNTY , WALL STREET …….. ANDY and ERIC’s ORGY Buddies …….. The HOs of the PUKES of Albany ……

Bing is a search engine that brings together the best of search and people in your social networks to help you spend less time searching and more time doing.

Volumes II and III are at the Publishers …….. The Royals are TOAST

George  Washington’s  Speculator Whores

The Great America  Swindle

In  Honor  Of  My  Parents

Dad1    Mother  

Mr.  Clifford B.  Witham  II             Mrs.  Anita  Farmilo  Witham

In Honor  Of  Mother  and  Dad


New  York  State  TARGETED  My  Mother and Father for Our Property  at  Harris  Bay   (  I  had  My hands on the  State’s  Files )

This man has invaluable information regarding what has been going on with land.

This man has invaluable information regarding what has been going on with land for  many  many  Years

BUNDY RANCH | You saw his proof. Now meet BLM Whistleblower Rusty Hill who uncovered the…

America Land Grab


The Banksters and Oligarchs

of the Environmental Hustle REVEALLED  

A  Vast   Financial   Racket

Green Nazi

Just Another Wall Street Heist

From the very start  WASHINGTON’s 

Land  Speculation  MOBSTERS


Welcome  to   NEW   York    NEW    England

The Panic of 1796–1797 was a series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets that led to broader commercial downturns in both Great Britain and the United States. In the U.S., problems first emerged when a land speculation bubble burst in 1796. The crisis deepened when the Bank of England suspended s…

America Land Speculation  

WHITESBORO, NY– Residents in the village of Whitesboro will soon decide the fate of a controversial image that some consider to be offensive. <

America Land Swindles

On this day,10/27/1775,King George III Spoke to British Parliament of American Rebellion

I’ve fought and fought and fought long and hard …… This is the beginning of the EXTREMELY DEEP RABBIT HOLE …….

Expose’ on Massive Bank, S&L, Mortgage and Wall Street Crimes

Funny Glens Falls  Schools   (  INDIANS  )

and  Lake  George Central    ( WARRIORS )

They never taught Us much of the  TRUTH


Lots of  Fluoride and  Metals in the Vaccines  Though

Brainwashing and Indoctrination and Private Corporations

Go Figure  Right

The Facts are really rather SHOCKING

For TRILLIONS of Reasons

Planetary Land Grabs …. a REALITY

The MASSIVE Financial Swindles and Campaign Financing what it is They want You distracted from ……..


The Swamp bears many secrets

Honoring Mr and Mrs Swamp Fox



JUST an Example of the reception the Books are getting …… Without Indentures: White Slave Children in Colonial Court ……/2013/…/without-indentures-white-slave

… from the State Library of North Carolina. … White Slave Children in Colonial Court Records (review) … the core of Without Indentures: …

See More

As the subtitle states, the core of Without Indentures: Index to White Slave Children in Colonial Court…


Suzi Danger Spangenberg's photo.

 This should be in our history books. Not stories about lost European sailors.

The  Royal Set Up  STACKING The Deck

First They Decided Which Forest To Cut


America was full  of  TREES  (  The Kings Trees )

SEE   William Augustus Russell     

and   Hugh  J  Chisolm




The  Biggest  Dump  ever  taken   ………   The  Poop  Chute  River    A  Monument  to  Andrew  Cuomo  and  Eric  Schneiderman   and   Lake  George  NY

The Entire State is a Rigged and Engineered PIN HOLE MONEY
MACHINE.  Like Skelos and Silver and the BOIZ the PIN HOLE
leads to Their Pockets …..
It’s a FACT …….

AND Lake George’s Millionaires Row

TIMES UNION EDITORIAL BOARD: “We can’t recall anyone ever faulting Governor Andrew Cuomo for being too nice. But for once, we’re wishing he’d play a little hardball when it comes to General Electric Co. and its cleanup of PCBs from the ‪#‎HudsonRiver‬.

That cleaning isn’t done, not by several miles. But you wouldn’t know it from the governor’s silence.”

With considerable fanfare, GE is shutting down its six-year, billion-dollar cleanup of PCB hot spots in a stretch of the Hudson between Waterford and Fort Edward, where one of its plants dumped tons of the toxic substance for decades. […] that…

FACT  IS   ALBANY  and  KINGS  COUNTY  and  WASH  DC   are  all

PACKED  with  ANDY  and  ERIC’s   CRIMINAL   BUTTIES   ………
Silver  and  Skelos   are  SMALL  Taters  …….



A  Royal  GLOBAL  Crime Spree   <—-<<<


Chickasaw-Choctaw Claims Against United States …

A Thesis was written and researched by Richard Hayes Phillips. … the vast ChoctawChickasaw jointly held timberlands in southeastern Oklahoma had …. of unallotted jointly held ChoctawChickasaw lands to approximately 1.3 million acres.

Alaska Inter-Tribal Council
The UN human rights inquiry will focus on the living conditions of the 2.7 million Native Americans living in the US | From nativeamericans2015

George Washington and Martha the MASSIVE CON

Gaming and Playing the Public for the HUGE BUCK$


American Indian Russell Means gives an eye-opening 90 minute interview in which he explains how Native Americans and Americans in general are all…
The  ADIRONDACKS  are  STOLEN  LAND   Historical FACT…/1760.jpg


America Looted again and again and again and again and AGAIN


The  Adirondack Park  is  INDIAN LAND  STOLEN



White Slaves from Ireland, Scotland and England predate the African Slavers even the enslavement of the Indigenous upon the Plantations of the 1600s.     TWO  MORE   BOOKS   ARE  COMING  ….  Filled  with  the  REAL  HISTORY

Truth Prevails on the Warrior Trail

The United Nations has made a statement that is shocking to many, but comes as no surprise to those who know their history. An investigator probing discrimination…

US Should Return Stolen Land to Indian Tribes, Says United ……/us-should-return-stolenl

American Renaissance

May 8, 2012 – In Western NY, there’s an Indian leader known as Smoking Joe. His reservation gets plenty of tax dollars and uses government services.

American Indian Land Cessions in Georgia

Chronology of American Indian Land Cessions in Georgia by the Creek and Cherokee … land from the Altamaha to the Oconee in The Treaty of New York, signed by … man with $4.00 could enter a lottery for land stolen from Native Americans.

A Map of Destruction: How Europeans Stole Native Land …

Nov 22, 2012 – A shocking look at the theft of Native American Land. … Pingback: A Letter to Friends Marching in New York | Why Not Be Utterly Changed Into …

1785 1788 Treaty Map Arial Font


NYS  DEC  and  the  ADIRONDACKS  COUNSEL   Are  Con  Men

Cuomo and  Schneiderman    YOU  ARE  CALLED  OUT  with  DEC

Watch How The US Stole Land From Native Americans – Co … › Co.Design › Infographic of the Day

Jan 9, 2015 – Watch How The U.S. Stole Land From Native Americans … location or any Native American nation, such as Cherokee or Sioux, to see the land …

US should return stolen land to Indian tribes, says United … › US News › US Congres

The Guardian

May 4, 2012 – A United Nations investigator probing discrimination against Native Americans has called on the US government to return some of the land …

Interactive map: Loss of Indian land – Slate

Jun 17, 2014 – Interactive Time-Lapse Map Shows How the U.S.Took More Than … a time-lapse vision of the transfer of Indian landbetween 1776 and 1887.

Every Step Of The Way

Secrets  and Lies TONS and TONS of  Them

My Buddy ……..    Dr.  Phillips

Governor Anoatubby learns of unlawful acts by the U.S. Government. Teaming up with Choctaw Nation…

For  Mother and Dad

The Poisoning of Lake Champlain


800 TONS a Day For DECADES


In briefest terms, corporations arose out of an English tradition of law that subsidized the desire for empire. Royal charters were the tools for conveying privilege into private hands, for rewarding powerful benefactors of the empire, and for expanding the empire‟s reach. Even greater than the bestowal of a title of nobility, charters granted powers fit for kings, including the privilege of claiming ownership of vast tracts of land, and governing authority over all the resources and the people living therein.


Hochschilds, Rothschilds, Rockefellers 

The Colvins were  DIGGERS


An Example of New York State LAND GRABBING


1785 1788 Treaty Map Arial Font

The Great American Land Thefts

The Rape of North America





BATTERIES and other ADVANCED APPLICATIONS of the  Minerals and Materials present in the Adirondacks and Catskills …..   Heterogeneous catalysis plays a part in the production of more than 80% of all chemical products      The Adirondacks are full of  Lanthanides  (  Rare  Earth  Elements  ) not to mention all the  sediment  basins and the Hudson River and Schroon River , Lake Champlain , Lake George and all the  Streams and Creeks  and Wetlands  🙂   The  MINING   interests that set up the  Adirondacks and Catskill Parks  damned  certainly  knew   …   HOCHSCHILDS    ROTHSCHILDS     ROCKEFELLERS  the  USGS  New York State  …..   (  Verplank  Colvin  )   and  the  Governors  from the  very start. …..    REVEALING   DEC  and  the  NYS  Geological  Service /  Albany  /   The Governors  and  Attorney  Generals  have been  making  some  very  DUBIOUS  DEALS  like  Mining  and  Land  Swapping   …….  And  TARGETING  Certain Land Owners  within the Blue Lines …..   like  MY PARENTS   ( Dad’s Blackened Drink at our Marina Bar and the US Navy Dive Team BLUE Life Boat Research Team 1965 – 1968 )

On a NANO SCALE what are those Mining Rights worth again ???

The  Grand  Inquiry  (  New YORK’s  Inquisition )

The  Great   Inventorying …



The Obama administration has granted Royal Dutch Shell final approval to resume drilling for oil and gas in the Arctic Ocean for the first time since 2012 despite widespread protests from environmental groups.


The  SMOKIES  are  full  of  TREASURE  and  IP  🙂

Let Us  NOT  Forget  the  Blues  and  Smokies

North Carolina History Project : Carolina Charter of 1663

In 1584 Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter to Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a … of them with a grant of land that included what is now North and South Carolina.

NOR Shall We forget the POCONOS

The name Pennsylvania, which translates roughly as “Penn’s Woods”,[1] was created by combining the Penn surname (in honor of William’s father, Admiral Sir William Penn) with the Latin word sylvania, meaning “forest land.” The Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina.

And  NEW  Hampshire’s 

The CorpORape of New Hampshire

Giant  White Mountains

New Hampshire Grants – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of New Hampshire, …
Background – ‎Grants – ‎Royal adjudication – ‎Invalidation


The New Hampshire Grants – Vermont Historical Society…/the-newhampsh..

Vermont Historical Society

Why was Vermont called the New Hampshire Grants? How did the English colonies divide the land?

New Hampshire Grants –…/NewHampshireGran

Encyclopedia Britannica

The area was initially claimed by New Hampshire, and the first land grant there was issued in 1749 by the first governor of New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth.

Chapter I < The Story of Ethan Allen (1738-1789 …

As governor of New Hampshire from 1741 to 1766, Benning Wentworth was an … All New Hampshire land grants in the Green Mountains had just become null …

APPALACHIA and Georgia and YES Even Florida,

Tennessee. Ohio and Kentucky


and  certainly  MARYLAND

[PDF]private business corporations would have an increasing …

“vagabonds” delivered whole families into forced labor in the cities and … the Massachusetts Bay Company, the Virginia Company, The Calvert family‟s … A modern American corporate municipality or municipal corporation is not simply.


The rights of property form the invisible link between the British crown‟s claim of supremacy over the people living in American communities, and the US Supreme Court‟s eventual claim that state legislatures maintain supremacy over the people living in American communities. John Dillon‟s 1868 dictum, which would become known as “Dillon‟s Rule,” claimed, “Authority denies…any inherent right of local self-government.” The eventual embrace of this notion by the US Supreme Court in 1907 finalized the American counter-revolution by asserting that in the states the legislatures are sovereign, and not the People.

For the People to create the legislature and then subordinate themselves to it contradicts the principle espoused in the Declaration of Independence which says “to secure…Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed.” It would be the height of folly for people to establish governments that deprive rights. But according to Dillon‟s Rule, unless the state expressly confers the authority for a community to exercise a right to self-governance, we are to believe that the right does not exist. State legislatures and courts have routinely denied a right to local self-government, thereby codifying a ludicrous tyranny as “well settled law.”

Lawmakers and judges have employed a similar reversal of logic in subordinating communities of people to the corporate creations of state legislatures.

A modern American corporate municipality or municipal corporation is not simply an epiphenomenona of English colonial governance. It is also a corruption of American Revolutionary principles. A central project of the American Revolution was to subordinate private corporations and privilege to the sovereignty of the People. One of the lessons learned by the people, as they watched the sovereign crown eliminate local assemblies, was that in the aftermath of the Revolution they would have to safeguard their assemblies as organs of community self-governance.     Ben Price

The Corporations Never Left

In 1732, a corporate charter for the Province of Georgia was carved out of South Carolina by King George II.

They  Are  Cleaning Up  Alright $$$

$uper Bucks from $uperfunds BROWNFIELD Bucks

The Giant Timber Companies and

Land Grant /  Patent Thefts  ……. An  American Crime Wave




American Crime Spree

His  Majesty’s  Forests  of  NEW  ENGLAND

Fox’s  Family  were in the  Lumber  Business   Imagine  That

Norman and  Alanson  FOX

Contested Terrain: A New History of Nature and People in …

Philip G. Terrie – 2008 – ‎History

In 1813, Norman and Alanson Fox floated logs down the Schroon and Hudson rivers from the Brant Lake tract in Essex County to Glens Falls. Before then logs …

SEE  ALSO   Around  Warrensburg

Surveying, Mapping and Assessing the Vast Adirondacks and Catskills TREASURES

From the very start


So  what is the  ACTUAL  Value  of  IMetals   MINING  in  the  Adirondack  Park   ??????     NYCO   the  ROBBERY  ………    aerospace CaSiO3

What  You’re NOT  being told  about   Wollastonite  is it’s  ACTUAL   VALUE  and  High Tech  Applications ……  PRESS   For  The  ACTUAL  DETAILS    this  goes  for  GARNET  as  well  and that  MONAZITE  that  occurs  with  Garnet  ……..  The Champlain and Hudson Valleys are FULL of MONAZITE ( Thorium )    Remember  the  RADIOACTIVE  SARATOGA  VISHEY  WATER  ???? 

MONAZITE SAND is worth $10 a Gram 🙂

The Sand is in the Champlain

and Hudson Valleys

EPA’s Map of Radon Zones: New York

The Hudson Highlands are high in radon potential because of the … gneiss with local xenotime and monazite … Champlain Valley was occupied at …


WOW   now  this  is   MINING  for  GREEN    ( Peckham Mining )

POT    Hits  the  Adirondack  Park   ……..  Good  Old  Chestertown   LOL  …….    SMOKE’EM and Don’t BOGART   ……….   Peckham   POT   ……..   CHESTERTOWN   …………     The documents related to the correspondence of William H. Peckham, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Grand Council, Scottish Rite (Cerneau), were presented to the library by M\W\ Gary A. Henningsen, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York, in the fall of 1996. They were found in the office of the Grand Secretary of New York, and represent several years of correspondence directed to William H. Peckham, who was Sovereign Grand Commander of a Scottish Rite organization from 1880-1889. Peckham’s group was one of several minor, schismatic groups that historically have been described as spurious by other organizations which sought to force them out of business.


Temporary Commission 1970

The  More and More and MoreLAND  ……  CABAL

THE NYS DEC’s Very Powerful Friends

NYCO   and  NYS  DEC   are   SLEEPING   WITH   ………

Complaint: DEC Illegally Lobbied For Company Mining Wilderness Area by Editorial Staff – See more at:



The Pukes of New YORK are BUSTED

Dear Phreet Baraha INDICT Eric ( The Silent ) Schneiderman


Building Ships to cross the Atlantic


It has always been the  BUSINESS  MODEL …..  Author


You Have Been  PUNKED  Totally  Flim  Flammed

Fiat money
Fiat money is currency which derives its value from government regulation or law. The term derives from the Latin fiat (“let it be done”, “it shall be”). It differs from commodity money and representative money.

The ROYALS Have Never  Left – AGENDA 21

Sponsored by the NEW York Fed

Sponsored by the NEW York Fed


The Yazoo land fraud in Bourbon County, Georgia is one of the most notorious incidents of our early Republic. In January 1795 the state sold 35 million acres to four land companies for less than 1½¢ an acre. This was the result of bribery arranged by James Wilson – whom George Washington subsequently rewarded by naming him to the Supreme Court. (Moral: Crime pays.) To add insult to injury, the state was paid in depreciated currency, the “continentals.” So great was the outcry that a new state legislature was elected, and revoked the sale in February 1796, accusing its beneficiaries of “improper influence.”

But a month before this new legislature was convened, one of the companies (the Georgia Mississippi Land Company) sold over 10 million acres, nominally at 10¢ cents an acre, to the New England Mississippi Land Company, which was quickly organized for just this purpose by some eminent Bostonian speculators, headed by William Wetmore. Only part of the money actually was paid in cash, and the transaction was largely a paper one. The company quickly hired agents to began selling shares to the public. Widespread speculation ensued in many states, each new investor becoming a partisan urging the national and state governments go along with the original fraud.

New fraudsters jumped on board. Patrick Henry (“Give me liberty, or give me death”) headed up the Virginia Yazoo Company, which made a deal with Virginia Governor Telfair to buy twenty million acres of land at a penny an acre – paid for with the worthless continentals. The public was furious, but the “free marketers” of the day asked, what was wealth, anyway, but a reward for risk-taking.

After the Yazoo land was turned over to the federal government in 1803, a series of Congressional investigations reported that the Boston company actually had paid little if any of the purchase price. (This is now called debt leveraging.) But the company sued, and lobbied Congress for over a decade to get compensation for its paper losses – that is, its lost opportunity to profit from the transaction. In 1814, in the turbulent aftermath of the War of 1812, Congress passed an indemnification act compensating them and other Yazoo investors with $8 million of public funds.[1]

This settlement helped establish a fateful legal precedent known as the doctrine of innocent purchasers possessing certain vested rights. The ruling was steered through the Supreme Court by James Wilson, who in 1782 (along with Robert Morris as the bank’s president, and Gouverneur Morris) had obtained from Pennsylvania’s legislature a charter for the Bank of North America on terms similar to those of the Yazoo land claim.

As Charles Beard has pointed out in his classic Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, James Wilson, the two Morrises, and two other bank directors (Thomas Fitzsimmons and George Clymer) acted as delegates to the Constitutional Convention, where they shaped America’s laws so as to facilitate their de-accessioning of public property and obtained special rights and charters for banks and other monopolies. (The word “privatization” would take nearly two centuries to enter the lexicon.) After the Bank of North America was so mismanaged that a money panic ensued, Pennsylvania revoked it’s charter. Wilson sued, arguing “that the original act was a grant of a VESTED RIGHT. That the charter could not be repealed without ‘IMPAIRING VESTED RIGHTS, and the rights of innocent parties.’ The legislature yielded, and in 1787 it reincorporated the bank. Thus originated the clause that Wilson had inserted in the present constitution forbidding any state to pass legislation impairing the obligation of a contract. And out of it has come Supreme Court decisions that have given this country the blackest record of validated land frauds and bribery known in history,” for it blocked state legislatures and Congress from undoing the results of overt bribery. (The story is told in Thomas L. Brunk, American Lordships, or A Brief Insight into the Suppressed History of Land Sharks and Their Control Over Government and Industry (Sioux City, Iowa,  1927, p. 84).

The Supreme Court had ruled (in response to John Marshall’s pleading the Fairfax land-fraud case in Virginia) that what mattered was not the methods used to obtain a grant or contract, but the fact that innocent purchasers would be injured by repealing such contracts once they had been entered into (Chandler 1945:74,390). Even outright frauds were held irrevocable by subsequent legislation, on the ground that once a business claim was sold to an innocent purchaser, undoing the deal would be unfair. The unwitting buyer would be left holding the proverbial bag. Myers (1936:217) finds this to be “the first of a long line of court decisions validating grants and franchises of all kinds secured by bribery and fraud.”

The new doctrine provided a motive for privatizers to cash in quickly by selling out shares of fraudulent transactions to speculators and other buyers, who could then ask the state to “make them whole” for having injured them in revoking their wrongful purchase! Likewise today, polluters and real-estate holders are suing the government to be compensated for public laws that prevent them from making money by violating ecological and other real-estate regulations. Their demand is to be made whole for gains they allegedly would have been able to make had such public laws not been passed!

The “innocent purchaser” and “vested interest” doctrines made it hard to undo fraud, if only because the alternative was to restore the misappropriated asset from the stock-buying public to the state. The Supreme Court ruled it preferable to let the first thief legitimize his fraud, leaving the “innocent buyers” in possession of the stolen property. Possession became, ipso facto, nine-tenths of the law. The moral of this story was that once you obtain public assets, even through bribery, it is yours, at least if you make the transaction complicated enough and involve enough “innocent parties” to make any restoration of the status quo ante hopelessly complicated.

The Yazoo incident is only exceptional for its size and the fact that it became a precedent for future practices. In 1835 the Senate Committee on Lands reported: “The first step necessary to the success of every scheme of speculation in the public lands, is to corrupt the land officers, by a secret understanding between the parties that they are to receive a certain portion of the profits.”[2]

Sixty years later, in 1895, Iowa’s Governor William Larrabee wrote on how the system had been perfected (largely by the railroad robber barons): “Outright bribery is probably the means least often employed by corporations to carry their measures. … It is the policy of the political corruption committees of corporations to ascertain the weakness and wants of every man whose services they are likely to need, and to attack him, if his surrender should be essential to their victory, at his weakest point. Men with political ambition are encouraged to aspire to preferment, and are assured of corporate support to bring it about. Briefless lawyers are promised corporate business or salaried attorneyships. Those in financial straits are accommodated with loans. Vain men are flattered and given newspaper notoriety. Others are given passes for their families and their friends. Shippers are given advantage in rates over their competitors. The idea is that every legislator shall receive for is vote and influence some compensation which combines the maximum of desirability to him with the minimum of violence to his self-respect. … The lobby which represents the railroad companies at legislative sessions is usually the largest, the most sagacious and the most unscrupulous of all. … Telegrams pour in upon the unsuspecting members. … Another powerful reinforcement of the railroad lobby is not infrequently a subsidized press and its correspondents.”

Gustavus Myers’ History of the Great American Fortunes (1936, pp. 218ff.) gives the details of this and other frauds that have shaped American history. The moral is that great gifts to insiders have effects that will last centuries. That is what is being threatened today with Mr. Paulson’s “clean” giveaway to his Wall Street clients.

The moral is that there is a great danger in having a Treasury Secretary represent insider financial interests rather than the national interest.


[1] Myers History of the Great American Fortunes (New York 1936):216ff. and 1912:181-84, 258-64, Brunk 1927:147f., and Chandler 1945:388f., drawing on Senate Docs., 18th Cong., 2nd Sess., Vol. II, Doc. No. 14, and Sen. Docs., 24th Cong., 1836-37, Vol. II, Doc. No. 212, and Wheaton’s Reports, Supreme Court, IV, 255). See also Albert James Pickett, History of Alabama (to 1851), (Sheffield: 1896).

[2] Senate Docs., 23rd Cong., 2nd Sess. IV, Doc. No. 151 (March 3, 1835), cited in Myers 1936:218.

Mapping the Treasure ….. Cataloging the Loot

Old King  Cole was a  Slippery Old Soul

as were James A and Verplank Colvin …

The Adirondack Survey may be the most unusual mapping activity ever funded by New York State. It was basically the creation of Verplanck Colvin (1847-1920), an Albany patrician, who began his career as an attorney in his father’s law office.

The DUKE of Col Chester ( COLVIN )


The  ALBANY CORPORATION  the source of the ROT

see  NY Land Grants, Patents, Manors and Purchases

Complaint: DEC Illegally Lobbied For Company Mining Wilderness Area by Editorial Staff – See more at:


SEE IMetal   They own NYCO …….

The Environmental  Gangsters and Banksters


RCF to buy NYCO

Published: Thursday, 26 April 2007
24 April 2007
Fording Coal sale of US wollastonite major to private equity fund group nears closure

Following our report in March on the sale of wollastonite leader NYCO Minerals Inc., IM can reveal that the new owner and operator of the company is to be Rolling Rock Minerals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Resource Capital Funds IV LP (RCF).   On 9 February 2007, NYCO’s parent Fording…

Chevron   Resource Capital Funds   (   Hochschilds  and   Rockefellers  and  Da  BOIZ  )

SEE  ……



imetal rothschild Natural Resources

The Company was founded in 1880 and for many years was known as Imetal.[1] It was founded by the Rothschild family, combining a few of their many subsidiaries in the metals and mining industries.[2]

EXACTLY AS I HAVE BEEN SAYING ……….. NYCO hello …….. The Money Man Behind America’s Rare Earth … – Forbes…/the-money-man-behind-americas-rare…/

Oct 18, 2010 – Ross Bhappu has led Resource Capital Funds’ investment in Molycorp, the nation’s best hope for a domestic rare earth elements supplier.

The Rockefeller Syndicate –

… the Royal Institute of International Affairs, … The Rockefeller family themselves, … As attorney for the wealthy Hochschild family, …


I.G. Farben soon had a net worth of six billion marks, controlling some five hundred firms.  Its first president was Professor Carl Bosch.  During the period of the Weimar Republic, I.G. officials, seeing the handwriting on the wall, began a close association with Adolf Hitler, supplying much needed funds and political influence.  The success of the I.G. Farben cartel had aroused the interest of other industrialists.  Henry Ford was favorably impressed and set up a German branch of Ford Motor Company.  Forty per cent of the stock was purchased by I.G. Farben.  I.G. Farben then established an American subsidiary, called American I.G., in cooperation with Standard Oil of New Jersey .  Its directors included Walter Teagle, president of Standard Oil, Paul Warburg of Kuhn Loeb & Company and Edsel Ford, representing the Ford interests. John Foster Dulles, for the law firm, Sullivan and Cromwell, became the attorney for I.G., frequently traveling between New York and Berlin on cartel business.  His law partner, Arthur Dean, is now director of the $40 million Teagle Foundation which was set up before Teagle’s death.  Like other fortunes it had become part of the network.  Like John Foster Dulles, Arthur Dean has been a director of American Banknote for many years; this is the firm which supplies the paper for our dollar bills.  Dean also has been an active behind the scenes government negotiator, serving as arms negotiator at disarmament conferences.  Dean was also a director of Rockefeller’s American Ag & Chem Company.  He was a director of American Solvay, American Metal and other firms.  As attorney for the wealthy Hochschild family, who owned Climax Molybdenum and American Metal, Dean became director of their family foundation, the Hochschild Foundation.  Dean is director emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Asia Foundation, International House, Carnegie Foundation, and the Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

In 1930, Standard Oil announced that it had purchased an alcohol monopoly in Germany, a deal which had been set up by I.G. Farben.  After Hitler came to power, John D. Rockefeller assigned his personal press agent, Ivy Lee, to Hitler to serve as a full-time adviser on the rearmament of Germany, a necessary step for setting up World War II.  Standard Oil then built large refineries in Germany for the Nazis and continued to supply them with oil during World War II.  In the 1930s Standard Oil was receiving in payment from Germany large shipments of musical instruments and ships which had been built in German yards.

The primary role of the royal government in matters of land policy was granting new estates. The English adopted some of the Dutch practices for granting land, such as requiring that it be purchased in advance from the Indians. The general procedure for obtaining a land grant remained much the same throughout the British colonial period. In theory, a land patent could be obtained by following these steps:[4]

First, petition the Governor in Council for permission to purchase land from Indians. Pay fees.
Second, purchase land from Indians (a representative of the state was supposed to be present.) Pay another fee.
Third, obtain a warrant from governor directing that a survey be made (fee again). Make the survey, and pay more fees.
Fourth, obtain another warrant from governor directing the attorney general to prepare draft of patent. Pay another fee.

Predictably, things rarely worked out so neatly. To begin with, the requirement to purchase the land from the Indians was frequently ignored, or else the purchase was carried out by fraud, or it may have been disputed by different groups of Indians. The boundaries of purchases were often so vaguely defined that nobody knew what they were. In some cases, newly granted estates had already been sold to somebody else. Or else they may have been in an area under dispute by two colonies. Sometimes no survey was made—or it was incomprehensible. On many occasions, the necessary fees were not paid. Most early land titles had several of these flaws.      See  Chapter 5     Property and Boundary Mapping  Colonial NY  David Yehling Allen  

Nonetheless, granting land could be lucrative for the governor and other royal officials. It was also a way to buy or reward political allies. In theory, land was also a continuing source of income for the crown and its servants. After purchasing land, owners were expected to pay an annual “quit rent.”[5] Although quit rents were in part a symbol of feudal subordination, they were mainly a kind of land tax, and a potential source of income for the provincial government. The quit rent was fixed under the so-called “Duke’s Laws” (promulgated by Governor Nicolls in 1665) at 2s.6d annual rent per hundred acres, but this provision was rarely enforced.[6]Actual quit rents were set arbitrarily and at various levels; some huge tracts of land were charged nominal rates, which might be measured in bushels of wheat or animal skins. The most notorious example was the Dellius Patent, in which the minister of the Dutch reformed church at Albany received a grant of 620,000 acres in exchange for a quit-rent of one raccoon skin per year. Quit rents were often ignored and went uncollected for years. The setting and collection of quit rents was a major bone of contention throughout colonial period, and a significant cause of the American Revolution. If properly enforced, the collection of quit rents could have destroyed New York’s large landed estates. Since they could be collected without the approval of the provincial Assembly, they were also a form of “taxation without representation,” which could be used to fund the royal government. As we will see, the efforts of royal officials to assess and collect quit rents were a driving force behind their efforts to draw up accurate property maps.

….  Whatever one’s evaluation of the overall consequences of New York’s land system, it was certainly chaotic, and it opened the door to various problems and abuses. Usually patentees were expected to settle their lands within a specified period of time, or else forfeit their property. This provision was also frequently ignored, and huge tracts of land went both untaxed and uninhabited for decades. Some of these land patents were vacated, but serious abuses continued throughout the colonial period because of a mixture of political opposition, patronage, corruption, and bureaucratic sloth. Land grants offered many opportunities for corruption and for litigation. Surveyors’ commissions, processing fees, and legal fees provided lucre for surveyors, attorneys, and government officials. A number of New York’s colonial governors were impoverished aristocratssent out to the colonies to recoup their fortunes. It was generally expected that they and other officials would use their offices to make profits required to support the expansive life style of a gentleman, and they found many opportunities to do so in New York’s land system.     Most early land titles had several of these flaws.      See  Chapter 5     Property and Boundary Mapping  Colonial NY  David Yehling Allen  

ALL  Royal Land Grants in NEW York / NEW England Honored by Washington

England’s Monarchy and Cronies STILL Own Vast Interests in NEW England / NEW York


JAMES  A.  COLVIN and the  ALBANY   Corporation

Verplanck  Colvin’s   PAPPY  

Many European nations chartered corporations to lead colonial ventures, such as the Dutch East India Company (VOC) or the Hudson’s Bay Company. These chartered companies became the progenitors of the modern corporation. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, and were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam Stock Exchange. Shareholders are also explicitly granted limited liability in the company’s royal charter.[11]

In England, the government created corporations under a Royal Charter or an Act of Parliament with the grant of a monopoly over a specified territory. The best known example, established in 1600, was the East India Company of LondonQueen Elizabeth I granted it the exclusive right to trade with all countries to the east of the Cape of Good Hope. Some corporations at this time would act on the government’s behalf, bringing in revenue from its exploits abroad. Subsequently the Company became increasingly integrated with English and later British military and colonial policy, just as most corporations were essentially dependent on the Royal Navy‘s ability to control trade routes.

Labeled by both contemporaries and historians as “the grandest society of merchants in the universe”, the English East India Company would come to symbolize the dazzlingly rich potential of the corporation, as well as new methods of business that could be both brutal and exploitative.[12] On 31 December 1600, Queen Elizabeth I granted the company a 15-year monopoly on trade to and from the East Indies and Africa.[13] By 1611, shareholders in the East India Company were earning a return on their investment of almost 150 per cent. Subsequent stock offerings demonstrated just how lucrative the Company had become. Its first stock offering in 1613–1616 raised £418,000, its second in 1617–1622 raised £1.6 million.[14]

Chart of the South Sea Company‘s stock prices. The rapid inflation of the stock value in the 1710s led to the Bubble Act 1720, which restricted the establishment of companies without a Royal Charter.

A similar chartered company, the South Sea Company, was established in 1711 to trade in the Spanish South American colonies, but met with less success. The South Sea Company’s monopoly rights were supposedly backed by the Treaty of Utrecht, signed in 1713 as a settlement following the War of Spanish Succession, which gave Great Britain an assiento to trade in the region for thirty years. In fact the Spanish remained hostile and let only one ship a year enter. Unaware of the problems, investors in Britain, enticed by extravagant promises of profit from company promoters bought thousands of shares. By 1717, the South Sea Company was so wealthy (still having done no real business) that it assumed the public debt of the British government. This accelerated the inflation of the share price further, as did the Bubble Act 1720, which (possibly with the motive of protecting the South Sea Company from competition) prohibited the establishment of any companies without a Royal Charter. The share price rose so rapidly that people began buying shares merely in order to sell them at a higher price, which in turn led to higher share prices. This was the first speculative bubble the country had seen, but by the end of 1720, the bubble had “burst”, and the share price sank from £1000 to under £100. As bankruptcies and recriminations ricocheted through government and high society, the mood against corporations, and errant directors, was bitter.

In the late 18th century, Stewart Kyd, the author of the first treatise on corporate law in English, defined a corporation as:

a collection of many individuals united into one body, under a special denomination, having perpetual succession under an artificial form, and vested, by policy of the law, with the capacity of acting, in several respects, as an individual, particularly of taking and granting property, of contracting obligations, and of suing and being sued, of enjoying privileges and immunities in common, and of exercising a variety of political rights, more or less extensive, according to the design of its institution, or the powers conferred upon it, either at the time of its creation, or at any subsequent period of its existence.

—A Treatise on the Law of Corporations, Stewart Kyd (1793–1794)

The FACTS Have Been Witnessed By Huge Numbers of People


Anita and Clifford  Witham and Family Built it …..  NYS  DEC and INTERNATIONAL PAPER   ” Mill Ponded ”  It to pieces  …….   Over and Over and Over and Over again.


Many Many Many Witnesses KNOW The Truth

MILL PONDING …. Flushing  1.5  Million Cubic Yards of  TOXIC, HAZARDOUS WASTES into Lake Champlain.  Intentional Lake Ice Manipulations SHREDDED the place 1965 – 1969

New York OPEN ALL Your Books

Ticonderoga’s New York State and

International Paper’s


A WORK IN PROGRESS …… How $elf AnointedElites with Authoritarian Government Lie Cheat and $windle …. Arrogant Imitation Aristocracy Gone Wild


More Royals IMAGINE THAT …….  Castle  Dunbarton , Daniel Barton,  Henry Hudson Barton’s  Father ,  Barton International ….. Glens Falls, NY …….. Gore Mountain


Barton Mining Glens Falls

Monazite Sands and Thorium Reactors FASCINATING

Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry

Mineral Resources of the United States – Page 1078

Monazite Sand is worth $10 a  GRAM  or $280 an Ounce and $4600 a  Pound


Paleozoic rocks of the Hudson and Champlain Valleys . ….. As both zircon and monazite may contain appreciable thorium, most of the radioactivity of the rock …    

Monazite: A rare-earth phosphate mineral. –

continues to import and distribute large quantities of alluvial garnet from Australia and has expanded sourcing from a large producer in India

Guess Who Hercules and Imperial were owned  by …….  ROYALS

The North Country has been extracted by the Royals of England and Europe for Centuries

The Dupont Bloodline

Early History

The Hercules Powder Company was one of the several small explosives companies acquired by the Du Pont Company in the 1880s. By the beginning of the 20th century, Du Pont had absorbed so many of its competitors that it was producing two-thirds of the dynamite and gunpowder sold in the United States.

    1. [PDF]A Short History of the Imperial Department of Hercules …    By 1908, the Imperial Company and its influential Glens Falls … Company, which had been spun from the original DuPont Company and given the … the formation of the Imperial Paper and Color Corporation, a company strong enough to.

 ArchiveGrid : Singleton collection,

 … Glens Falls corporations: Imperial Paper and Color Corporationand Glens … assets of Imperial Color Chemical and Paper Company by Hercules Powder … New York State Historical Documents; E.I. du Pont de Nemours Powder Company.


1.5 Million  Cubic Yards (100,000 Tandem Trucks a Column 475 Mi Long )   Toxic Sewage and Mill Chemical and Batch Wastes  FLUSHED from Lake George ( The Mill Pond )  down LaChute River to Champlain.

Listen to the ORAL Evidence from the US Supreme Court



ROYALS  Dumped  a  HUGE  Mess in the  HUDSON  RIVER   from Corinth to Sandy Hill ,  Fort Edward and Schuylerville  and on and on and on.   Guess Who’s  Paying to  Clean It Up  …

EARTH  to  The  North  Country  MAN Oh  MAN  Oh MAN   ……  The DUKES  of  ALBANY  have taken You to the  CLEANERS  …….

The Post-Standard from Syracuse, New York · Page 31

The Post-Standard from Syracuse, New York … of a giant sludgebed from Lake Champlain and International Paper Co. would … sludge is accumulated …

PAGE 35 of a 1968 EPA Investigation


Attention NYS  DEC  Joe Martens, Governor Andrew Cuomo and State AG  Eric Schneiderman  a  message for New York State     ……….






Otis Falls paper mills c. 1908 at Chisholm, the industrial village within Jay named for Hugh J. Chisholm

International  Paper  Chisholm  Maine

ABSOLUTELY   Erchless Castle  (  Chisholm  Castle )


Good Old Henry Hudson

yes and the ROYALS

While in the employment of the Dutch East India Company.[3] He explored the river which eventually was named for him, and laid thereby the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.

YES  You  Know   ROYAL  DUTCH  SHELL  (  The  MINERS  )

Monarchy of the Netherlands – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the constitution of the Netherlands …

The Obama administration has granted permission to Royal Dutch Shell to drill for oil in the Chukchi Sea, off the northwest coast of Alaska.

The Obama administration has granted permission to Royal Dutch Shell to drill for oil in the Chukchi Sea, off the northwest coast of Alaska.

The company was given the final approval for its application to drill in the Arctic on Wednesday in what was a major loss for green activists who have fought the drilling plans.

Shell has been granted permission start drilling exploratory wells about 140m off the coast of Alaska – one of the best prospective offshore areas in the world.

read more


The “Shocking” Buying Spree Of America’s Mysterious Third ……

Apr 15, 2014 · … after Belgium, it will be Netherlands … They buyour bonds and we buy … The FED has committed treason against the United States of America and …

The biggest holder of U.S. debt ?   The Social Security Trust Fund. And No. 2?

C’mon, any guesses?

Yep, the Fed. Can you say ‘quantitative easing’?

Verplank Colvin and the Chisholms were COLLEAGUES and ROYALS

1905 Channing, J. Parke. … 1899 ChisholmHugh J1888 Chisolm, George E. 1906 Choate, Joseph H. 1874 Church, Col. George … 1886 ColvinVerplanck.

12-Year-Old Discovers All U.S. Presidents Are Direct …

12-Year-Old Discovers All U.S. Presidents Are Direct Descendants Of King John Of England

Aug 5, 2010 – Uploaded by CONTAGIONNEWSdotcom

12YearOld Discovers All U.S. Presidents Are Direct Descendants of King …. all U.S. presidents …

The Federal Reserve Cartel: The Eight Families | Global …

Jun 1, 2011 – The House of Morgan now fell under Rothschild and Rockefeller family control. … The international bankers sought to bring about a condition of despair here … BIS is owned by the Federal Reserve, Bank of England, Bank of Italy, Bank of … Hewlett-Packard, Honeywell, International PaperPfizer, Motorola, …

See ….

See …..

E. Stanton pub. “Report on Cause and Effect of Abnormally High and Low Water in L. George” 1932

Lake George  THE  MILL  POND  …….  The Lake George Association

Lake George association. Water committee.  Report on the cause and effect of abnormally
high and low water in Lake George, n.p. 1932. 15p. Report prepared by E.MacD. Stanton, dated Aug. 19, 1932.

Adirondack Bibliography; a List of Books, Pamphlets and …

Water committee. Report on the cause and effect of abnormally high and low water in Lake George, n.p. n.pub1932. 15p. Report prepared by E. MacD. Stanton …

And Also See



The Vast Credit Costs and Legal Expenses ALL on the  Credit Cards of  NEW  YORK’s  SHYSTERS

The  Publicans and Demon Rats   BLEED  New  Yorkers   EVERY  DAY …… They are Vampires

Farming Humans and Taking Advantage

The very HEART of the American Oligarchs  ……

the Root of the 1 %   Raking In The Big Bucks


RULING OVER PEOPLE is very lucrative and BIG Business …….

Great efforts have been undertaken for CENTURIES Perfecting DOMINION over the masses ……. This is a Work in Process …….

Judson Witham  –  Son Of The Swamp Fox  (all rights reserved Copy Right 7/18/2015 )

Of Course We Have The History ………  Adirondack Chronology – Protect the Adirondacks ( AKA The Pocket Books of the Elite )


Temporary Commission 1970


  1. Laurance S. Rockefeller: Catalyst For Conservation

  2. Robin W. Winks – 2013 – ‎Biography & Autobiography

    … of New York State’s Adirondack Park and Preserve a major new national park. … The Forest Preserve within the park is historically important, for it is not only …

  3. Living with the Adirondack Forest: Local Perspectives on …

    Catherine Henshaw Knott – 1998 – ‎History

    Laurance Rockefeller, the governor’s brother, had proposed the creation of an Adirondack National Park, an idea that was not well received by either the …

Conservation Timeline 1801-1900 – National Park Service

What Would an Adirondack National Park Look Like? – – The …

The Adirondack Park is a part of New York’s Forest Preserve in Upstate New York, …. as having laid the foundation for the U.S. National Wilderness Act of 1964.

AGENDA  21 /  The Hochschild Rockefeller Bartlett DeSantis Adirondacks Study for the 21st Century  ……  THE CONSPIRACY   ……..  COLVIN’S   Royal Forest Laws


MASSIVE  LAND  RESTRICTIONS ( Planning and  Zoning )  just Like The  BUBBLE  ACT.


The ROYAL COLVINS  began the National ” FOREST LAWS ”  for America’s  ROYAL FORESTS


John D. Rockefeller Jr. was the son of the richest man in America: John D. Rockefeller Sr., the founder of the vast Standard Oil trust. The younger Rockefeller became a prominent philanthropist and conservationist who donated millions of dollars towards the creation and expansion of national parks across the nation. No single American donated more to the parks.

Rockefeller purchased land and donated money ($45 million by some estimates) to create or expand AcadiaGreat Smoky MountainsGrand TetonYosemite and Shenandoah National Parks, and contributed to many other park activities such as the creation of museums. He passed his love of the parks on to his children, particularly his son Laurance, who was responsible for the creation of Virgin Islands National Park and helped launch the National Park Foundation to encourage more Americans to contribute to their parks.

David, Lawrence, Nelson Rockefeller WHO WERE THEY REALLY ( EXXON )

The German, Scottish, BRITISH Rockefellers   ROYAL  FORESTS OF NEW YORK

The Rockefellers trace their patrilineal line to Goddard Rockefeller (born Gotthard Rockenfeller) (1590) of Fahr, today part of Neuwied, Germany. The first Rockefeller to settle in America (1723) was Johann Peter Rockenfeller (1710, Segendorf, Neuwied; 1787, Amwell Township, New Jersey), who changed his name to Rockefeller. Godfrey Lewis Rockefeller was a son of distant cousins William Rockefeller (1750—1793) and Christina Rockefeller (1754—1800).

Lucy Avery was born to Miles Avery and Melinda Pixley, New England Yankees of mostly English descent. She was descended by her father from Edmund of Langley‘s first marriage (through 5th Baron Audley‘s second marriage)[2] and from Mary Boleyn‘s first marriage (through the 2nd Barons de la Warr).[3]

The Rockefellers ARE   Royal  Agents  always  have been, Morgan, Vanderbilt, Rothschilds, Renssalaers, and MOST ALL  Titans of Industry in  NEW  ENGLAND ……..  Remember WASHINGTON allowed them to KEEP THE  VAST  LANDS  the  Kings  Granted and Patented to them …….  The  Renssalaer  Model


The DUKE OF YORK Imagine That

Mary Boleyn (c. 1499/1500 – 19 June 1543) was the sister of English queen consort Anne Boleyn and a member of the Boleynfamily, which enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII of England. Some historians claim she was Anne’s younger sister, but her children believed Mary was the elder, as do most historians today.

Earl De La Warr is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1761 for John West, 7th Baron De La Warr. The Earl holds the subsidiary titles of Viscount Cantelupe (1761) in the Peerage of Great Britain, Baron De La Warr (1572) in the Peerage of England, and Baron Buckhurst, of Buckhurst in the County of Sussex (1864) in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The barony De La Warr is of the second creation; however, it bears the precedence of the first creation, 1299, and has done so since shortly after the death of William West, 1st Baron De La Warr. The barony and earldom are both pronounced “De La Ware”, as in the American state.[1][2]

First Targeted  The NATIVE AMERICANS ……  Control the Human Environment


The Great Hustlers …..

Adirondack Park  and Catskills Parks 


a  ROYAL  PLOT  complete with a Northway

History of Sherwood Forest – Nottinghamshire County Council…/sherwo

Nottinghamshire County Council
The main London to York road, the Great North Way, ran straight through Sherwood,

Colvins a long history of tenants-in-chief

and   Royal  Kings of England   …….. I give You The Grand Surveyor

YES BY JOVE ……   Old King  Cole  be a COLVIN 

The Royal House of COLVIN  …..  The  Grand  Surveyor 

The Royal Colvins of England

The Colvins are a family of ancient English lineage, the first appearance of the name in English history occurring in the old chronicles, wherein it is stated that Colvin, Duke of Col-Chester, or Kaer-Colvin (“Col-chester” equivalent to “Colvin-town”), became King of Britain and rejected the authority of the Roman Emperor. The Roman general, Constantius, being sent against him with an army, a truce was made and Constantius married Helen Colvin, daughter of the king. The son of this union was Constantine, afterwards Emperor of Rome, and called “The Great,” who was the first Christian emperor.* [* See ancient English Chronicles of Britain (Grafton, 1568, p 86-87-88-89), and Peter Heylyn’s great “Cosmographi,” Kings of Britain, p. 273.] His mother, Helen, was the Saint Helena, of the ancient Catholic Church, so honored as the discoverer at Jerusalem of the remains of the “true cross” on which the Savior died, which facts may be found more fully brought out in Geoffrey’s [i.e., Geoffrey of Monmouth] British History, chapter vi., Grafton’s Chronicles; Heylyn Chronicles, p. 273.



They Cut Loads of TIMBER and understood very well  MINERAL WEALTH

The LOYALISTS and COLVINS …. The WHIGS and The LAND BARRONS ….. The COLVINS were Grant Holders from the Crown ….. Great / Grand Surveyors or Hustlers LETS EXAMINE THE REAL HISTORY

The COLVINS  and   Van Renssalaers   ….  the  EPITOMY  of  BRITISH   ABUSES



The Adirondacks Conspiracy

INSTRUMENTAL with Rockefeller. DeSantis, Bartlett  and YES  The COLVINS in Creating and Exploiting the Adirondack Park


They Cut Loads of TIMBER and understood very well  MINERAL WEALTH

The Future of the AdirondacksThe Reports of the Temporary Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks, Volumes 1-2   


A  Nice  Historical  Film   LOGGING OPERATIONS OF THE 1930s

Author’s  NOTE …..

Witham’s Family Worked the Mills and Yes in part from SANDY HILL( Hudson Falls NY )

Modern pulp and paper making – Google Books

Paper: Devoted to the Manufacture, Sale and Use of Pulp …

Andrew James Colvin   Albany Corporation Counsel,_New_York


The cities of New York and Albany, New York were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany.

Yes the Albany Corporation ……. Albany was officially chartered as a city in 1686. It became the capital of New York in 1797. It is one of the oldest surviving settlements from the original thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.

New Netherlands


Province of New York


Dominion 1602  By Fiat and Decree of King  James of England

Dominion of New England

The New York Provincial Congress of local representatives declared itself the government on May 22, 1775, first referred to the “State of New York” in 1776, and ratified the New York State Constitution in 1777. While the British regained New York Cityduring the American Revolutionary War using it as its military and political base of operations in North America,[1][2] and a British governor was technically in office, much of the remainder of the former colony was held by the Patriots. British claims on any part of New York ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1783.


Then there were the Colvins

Adirondack Explorations: Nature Writings of Verplanck Colvin

Paul Schaefer – 2000 – ‎Literary Criticism

Verplanck Colvin was born in the city of Albany, New York, January 4, 1847. … of the old Coeymans patent adjoining the Van Rensselaerpatent on the south.

[PDF]Saratoga Springs NY Saratogian 1970 –…/Saratoga%20Springs%20NY%20Saratogian%2019…

Rockefeller emphasized that the party. “must spread its …. missioner; Carl DeSantis, Warren … Assemblyman Stanley Van Rensselaer and Richard J. Bartlett.


Note to Anthony Hall of the Lake George Mirror   and   Warren County Judge John Hall Jr. 
Anita and Clifford Witham's Marina at Harris Bay was  year after year after year destroyed
during the MILL PONDING Flushings of International Paper and Vlg of Ticonderoga's sewage into Lake Champlain. The numerous seasons of the Witham Family Marina being destroyed by Mill Ponding (1965-1969) is how
The Withams were cheated by New York State  DEC  and International Paper and The Harris Bay Development Corporation (  Richard J Bartlett And Company )
Listen to the ORAL Evidence from the US Supreme Court MILL POND MAFIA


What is AMAZING is the Mill Pond Lake Level manipulations caused enormous Wharf, Boat House and Shore Cribbing Damage for many many years. DEC and Warren County Authorities and most ALL Lake Front Property owners are MATERIAL WITNESSES. SEE

Saving the islands at lake george

Jun 01, 2014 · Saving the Islands at Lake George John S. Apperson, Jr. (1878-1963) by Ellen Apperson Brown . Home Explore Search You. slideshare Upload; Upload;

One Rock at a Time – SlideShare

Aug 09, 2012 · Slideshow explaining John S. Apperson … It should be noted that lowering and raising the Mill Pond during ice cover … (Lake George as a Mill Pond) …

Irving Langmuir | Lake George Mirror Magazine

… John Apperson, the lake’s most famous preservationist and … should not be a millpond. … Tags: General Electric, Irving LangmuirLake George …

Adirondack Legal History: The Lake GeorgeTrespass Case …

Jul 02, 2013 · It should be noted that lowering and raising the Mill Pond during ice … damage or low water for boating. The mill … Apperson’s Lake George …

The van Rensselaer fortune

Van Rensselaer was born in New York City, the eldest child of Stephen van Rensselaer II, the ninth patroon of Rensselaerswyck a large land grant in upstate New York awarded by the Dutch to his ancestor Kiliaen van Rensselaer. His mother was Catharina Livingston the daughter of Philip Livingston, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His family was very wealthy, and the Van Rensselaer Manor House was a rich childhood environment for the young boy to grow up in. However, his father died in 1769 when Van Rensselaer was only five.[5]

Van Rensselaer was raised by his mother and his stepfather, the Rev. Eilardus Westerlo, whom his mother married in 1775, and his Livingston grandfather.[6] His uncle, Abraham Ten Broeck, administered the Van Rensselaer estate after the untimely death of Van Rensselaer’s father. At an early age, Van Rensselaer was raised to succeed his father as lord of the manor.[5]

To this end he was sent off to school, first to Princeton College. Since Princeton was near to troops and battles of the ongoing American Revolution, Van Rensselaer was later sent to Harvard College, from which he graduated in 1782.[7] In 1783 he married Margarita Schuyler, the daughter of renowned Revolutionary War general Philip Schuyler and a distant cousin as Van Ressselaer was also a Schuyler through his Livingston roots. Margarita died in 1801; a year later Van Rensselaer married Cornelia Paterson, daughter of former New Jersey GovernorWilliam Paterson.[8]

On his 21st birthday, Van Rensselaer took possession of his family’s prestigious estate, close to 1,200 square miles (3,072 km²) in size, named Rensselaerswyck, and began a long tenure as lord of his family’s manor.[9] Van Rensselaer desired to make money off of the land that was suddenly his, but was extremely reluctant to sell it off.[10]

Instead, he granted tenants perpetual leases at moderate rates, which saved would-be landholders from having to pay all of their money up front.[11] This meant that they could invest more in their operations, which led to increased productivity in the area. Over time, Van Rensselaer would become landlord over 3,000 tenants, and proved a lenient and benevolent landowner.[12]

In the First Census of the United States in 1790, it was noted that he owned fifteen slaves.[13

INSTRUMENTAL with Rockefeller. DeSantis, Bartlett  and YES  The COLVINS in Creating and Exploiting the Adirondack Park

[PDF]Adirondack Chronology – Protect the Adirondacks

by G Chilson – ‎Cited by 2 – ‎Related articles

Rockefeller National Historic Park. Retrieved 20 June, 2006 …… Virgil Bartlett buys Backwoods Lodge on the Upper Saranac Lake-Round L. carry. 1854 …… Harold K. Hochschild is born, the same day the Adirondack Park is est. (20 May). 1892 …… The Howard Johnson Chain, c/o Joe DeSantis, opens at Lake George. 1953.


They Cut Loads of TIMBER and understood very well  MINERAL WEALTH


The Land / Rent Wars of New York

Manor of Rensselaerswyck

The estate was originally deeded by the Dutch West India Companyin 1630 to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, a Dutch merchant and one of the company’s original directors. Rensselaerswyck extended for miles on each side of the Hudson River near present-day Albany. It included most of what are now the present New York counties of Albany and Rensselaer, as well as parts of Columbia and Greenecounties.

Under the terms of the patroonship, the patroon had nearly total jurisdictional authority, establishing civil and criminal law, villages, a church (in part to record vital records, which were not done by the state until the late 19th century). Tenant farmers were allowed to work on the land, but had to pay rent to the owners, and had no rights to property. In addition, the Rensselaers harvested timber from the property.

The patroonship was maintained intact by Rensselaer descendants for more than two centuries. It was split up after the death of its last patroon, Stephen van Rensselaer III in 1839. At his death, van Rensselaer’s land holdings made him the tenth-richest American in history to date.[1] The manor was split between Stephen III’s sons, Stephen IV and William. Tenant farmers began protesting the feudal system and their anti-rent movement was eventually successful. Stephen IV and William sold off most of their land, ending the patroonship in the 1840s. For length of operations, it was the most successful patroonship established under the West India Company system.[2]

A history and genealogical record of the Alling-Allens of …    1899 – ‎Reference

Verplanck Colvin’s paternal great-grandfather, John Col- vin (born in Scotland, … or Manorial Grant, located across the south line of the Van Rensselaer Patent.


  1. Fort Orange (New Netherland) – Wikipedia, the free …


      This land patent was interpreted by van Rensselaer as including Fort Orange and the settlement that had begun outside its walls. He began purchasing and …

    1. Rensselaerswijck | A Tour of New Netherland

      In 1631, seven years after Fort Orange was founded on the shores of the North … named Killiaen van Rensselaer, bought a sizable tract of land around the fort 

The Aristocracy of Norman England – Page 163 – Google Books Result

Judith A. Green – 2002 – Historytenants. Although the latter figure included lands which he had granted to the church, and … Hugh de Rennes.80 Baldwin had additionally enfeoffed another tenant-in-chief, Ralph … and Godfrey the chamberlain.81 Colvinwhose name suggests he was English, was … 80 DB, i, 108 and see note to Phillimore edition Devon.

The Spectator – Volume 39 – Page 1138 – Google Books Result

1866Some relatives held under him in Devonshire. … and nine by under-tenants, and whose male descendants continued in Dorsetshire down to … bishop of Constance, Chief Justiciary of England, who had five manors in demesne, and … whom are Godwin and Colvin, holding respectively eleven and eight manors ; and three …

Colvin’s Ancient English Ancestry

Tenant-in-chief – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief (or … In England, a tenant-in-chief could enfief, or grant fiefs carved out of his own holding, to his …

Colvin Family – USGenWeb Archives

\l ”


Culpeper, VA THE COLVIN FAMILY Sarah Elizabeth Colvin (SEC) is the … from one “Colvin” or “Colvinus,” who was a “tenant-in-chief,” of Devonshire, England, 

Missing: verplanck

the new england – Page 376 – Google Books Result

1881THE manor of Alwington, North Devon, has been in possession of one line of the … contains many more names of tenants in King Edward’s time than have been … but in the latter we find Colvin was then the holder of two manors, in chief.

Grand  $urveyor  OR   Royal  Opportunist


The Royal Patents and Land Grants


By Grand ROYAL FOREST  Design just add a  NORTHWAY


History of Sherwood Forest – Nottinghamshire County Council…/sherwo&#8230;

Nottinghamshire County Council
Sherwood Country Park lies just north of Edwinstowe, two miles from Ollerton and 17 … The main London to York road, the Great North Way, ran straight through …
You’ve visited this page 4 times. Last visit: 7/16/15

George Washington Honored all British Land Grants and Patents

( Verplank Colvin )

English feudal barony – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

\l ”


In the kingdom of England, a feudal barony or barony by tenure was the highest degree of feudal land …. A tenant-in-chief could be the lord of fractions of several different baronies, if he or his …. Great Torrington, Devon, Odo FitzGamelin, 1086.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigationsearch

In medieval and early modern Europe the term tenant-in-chief (or vassal-in-chief), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy.[1][2] The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king’s feudal army.[3]Other names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron,[a] although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron.[1] The Latin term was tenens in capite;[4][b] In most countries allodial property could be held by laypeople or the church; however in England after the Norman Conquest, the king became in law the only holder of land by allodial title; thus all the lands in England became the property of the Crown.[5][6] A tenure by frankalmoin, which in other countries was regarded as a form of privileged allodial holding, was in England regarded as a feudal tenement. Every land-holding was deemed by feudal custom to be no more than an estate in land whether directly or indirectly held of the king; absolute title in land could only be held by the king himself, the most anyone else could hold was a right over land, not a title in land per se.[6] In England, a tenant-in-chief could enfief, or grant fiefs carved out of his own holding, to his own followers. The creation of subfiefs under a tenant-in-chief or other fief-holder was known as subinfeudation.[7] The Norman kings, however, eventually imposed on all free men (i.e. those whose tenures were “freehold”, that is to say for life or heritable by their heirs) who occupied a tenement a duty of fealty to the crown rather than to their immediate lord who had enfeoffed them. This was to diminish the possibility of sub-vassals being employed by tenants-in-chief against the crown.[6]

The lands held by a tenant-in-chief in England, if comprising a large feudal barony, were called an honour.[8] As feudal lord, the king had the right to collect scutage from the barons who held these honours.[9] Scutage was a tax collected from vassals in lieu of military service. The payment of scutage rendered the crown more independent of the feudal levy and enabled it to pay for troops on its own.[8] Once a tenant-in-chief received a demand for scutage, the cost was passed on to the sub-tenants and thus came to be regarded as a universal land tax.[9] This tax was a development from the taxation system created under the Anglo-Saxon kings to raise money to pay off the invading Danes, the so-called Danegeld.[10]

In the great feudal survey Domesday Book (1087), tenants-in-chief were listed first in each county’s entry.[2] When an English tenant-in-chief died, an inquisition post mortem was held in each county in which he held land and his or her land temporarily escheated(i.e.reverted) to the demesne of the crown until the heir paid a sum of money (a relief), and was then able to take possession (livery of seisin) of the lands. However, if the heir was underage (under 21 for a male heir, under 14 for an heiress) they would be subject to a feudal wardship where the custody of their lands and the right to arrange their marriage passed to the monarch, until they came of age. The wardship and marriage was not usually kept in Crown hands, but was sold, often simply to the highest bidder, unless outbid by the next of kin.[11] When an heir came of age, he or she passed out of wardship but could not enter upon their inheritance until, like all heirs of full age on inheritance, they had sued out their livery. In either case, the process was complicated.[12] Eventually a warrant was issued for the livery to pass under the Great Seal.[12] From its inception in 1540, The Court of Wards and Liveries administered the funds received from the wardships, marriages and the granting of livery; both courts and practice were abolished in 1646[13] and the whole system of feudal tenure was abolished by the Feudal Tenures Act 1660.

See also[edit]

Look up tenant-in-chief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Imperial immediacy

Fee simple

English Feudal Baronies

History of the English fiscal system


Arrow  Financial Corp…..  The Bag Men  Bartlett,  Rockefellers ,

DeSantis  and the  Hochschild  Cabal and the North Country Mob

[PDF]Adirondack Chronology – Protect the Adirondacks

by G Chilson – ‎Cited by 2 – ‎Related articles

Rockefeller National Historic Park. Retrieved 20 June …… lion) in Saratoga Co. 1890. E. B. Bartlett et al. establish The AdirondackCompany at Lake Placid (Nov) …… The Howard Johnson Chain, c/o Joe DeSantis, opens at Lake George. 1953.

Thoughts of Dick Bartlett | Glens Falls Chronicle

May 15, 2015 – Last month a friend alerted me that Dick Bartlett, ailing at the age of 89, … and Harvard Law School, who was a confidante of Governor Rockefeller. … Carl and Barbara DeSantis, that took them to Amsterdam, St. Petersburg, …

Rewind: April 16, 2014 – The Adirondack Northway …

Apr 16, 2014 – The Adirondack Northway, Stagecoaches and a Constitutional Amendment … Rockefeller and convinced him to name the road, “The Adirondack Northway. … Local Assemblyman, Richard J. Bartlett of Queensbury wrote the …

Trillions Have Been Extracted By British Interests

Andrew J. Colvin ( Verplank’s Father )

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigationsearch

Andrew James Colvin (April 30, 1808 CoeymansAlbany County, New York – July 8, 1889 Albany, New York) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.


He was the son of James Colvin (1776–1846) and Catherine Huyck (Verplanck) Colvin (1778–1882). He attended The Albany Academy. Then he studied law in the office of Van Buren & Butler, was admitted to the bar, and practiced in Albany. He married Rosina M. Alling (1810–1843), and they had two children.

He was Corporation Counsel of Albany in 1842. On September 2, 1845, he married Margaret Crane Alling (1812–1900), a sister of his first wife, and their son was Verplanck Colvin (1847–1920), the ideator of the New York Forest Preserve.

Andrew J. Colvin was District Attorney of Albany County from 1846 to 1847, and from 1851 to 1853; and a member of the New York State Senate (13th D.) in 1860 and 1861.

He was buried at the Grove Cemetery in Coeymans.

Assemblyman John Colvin (1752–1814) was his grandfather.


The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough, Stephen C. Hutchins and Edgar Albert Werner (1867; pg. 358, 442 and 529)

Biographical Sketches of the State Officers and Members of the Legislature of the State of New York by William D. Murphy (1861; pg. 42ff)

Colvin genealogy at Schenectady History

Grove Cemetery records at Betty Fink

OBITUARY; ANDREW J. COLVIN in NYT on July 21, 1889

Hudson-Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs: Colvin

Index to All Families | Index to Families by County: AlbanyColumbiaFultonGreeneMontgomeryRensselaerSaratogaSchenectadySchoharieWarrenWashington

Go to previous family: Stockwell | next family: Chase

[This information is from Vol. I, pp. 457-462 of Hudson-Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs, edited by Cuyler Reynolds (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1911). It is in the Reference collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at R 929.1 R45. Some of the formatting of the original, especially in lists of descendants, may have been altered slightly for ease of reading.]

Hon. Verplanck Colvin, superintendent of the New York State Land Survey, was born in Albany, New York, January 4, 1847. His father was the Senator, Hon. Andrew James Colvin, who was born at Coeymans, Albany county, New York, April 30, 1808, and died at Albany, July 8, 1889. Senator Colvin married, in Trinity Church, Newark, New Jersey, September 2, 1845, Margaret Crane Alling, born at Newark, New Jersey, March 19, 1812, died in Albany, New York, June 25, 1900.

The Colvins are a family of ancient English lineage, the first appearance of the name in English history occurring in the old chronicles, wherein it is stated that Colvin, Duke of Col-Chester, or Kaer-Colvin (“Col-chester” equivalent to “Colvin-town”), became King of Britain and rejected the authority of the Roman Emperor. The Roman general, Constantius, being sent against him with an army, a truce was made and Constantius married Helen Colvin, daughter of the king. The son of this union was Constantine, afterwards Emperor of Rome, and called “The Great,” who was the first Christian emperor.* [* See ancient English Chronicles of Britain (Grafton, 1568, p 86-87-88-89), and Peter Heylyn’s great “Cosmographi,” Kings of Britain, p. 273.] His mother, Helen, was the Saint Helena, of the ancient Catholic Church, so honored as the discoverer at Jerusalem of the remains of the “true cross” on which the Savior died, which facts may be found more fully brought out in Geoffrey’s [i.e., Geoffrey of Monmouth] British History, chapter vi., Grafton’s Chronicles; Heylyn Chronicles, p. 273.

(I) The progenitor of the Colvin family in America was John Colvin, who was the paternal great-grandfather of Hon. Verplanck Colvin. He was born in Scotland in 1752, near Castle Douglas, of renowned memory, and came to this country from there in 1772, settling at Nine Partners, New York, where he married Sarah Fuller. She was born in Connecticut, April 25, 1754, and was a descendant of a Mayflower Pilgrim. They subsequently removed to Coeymans, Albany county, New York, where he died January, 1814. Near this place he owned a large farm, situated west of Coeymans village or landing, on the Hudson river. He was a large man, possessing great physical strength as well as strong mental qualities, was of high character, a man of integrity and eminent for his piety. In 1811 he was member of assembly, being elected on the same ticket with Stephen Van Rensselaer, Abraham Van Vechten and Abel French, all prominent men of his day in New York State.

(II) James Colvin, eldest son of John Colvin and Sarah Fuller, was born at Coeymans, New York, July 11, 1776, and died in Albany, New York, May 6, 1846. He married Catherine Huyck Verplanck, which brought a wealth of ancient American history into the family. She was born in Coeymans, June 30, 1778, and was the granddaughter of David Verplanck (son of Isaac Verplanck, tenth child of Abraham 1st), whose first wife was Ariaantje Coeymans. From her he inherited a great part of the Coeymans Patent in Albany and Greene counties, a very ancient patent or manorial grant, located before the Van Rensselaer Patent of Rensselaerwyck, or Albany.

David Verplanck was born April 14, 1695, and married (first), July 16, 1723, Ariaantje, daughter of Barent Pieterse Coeymans, born at Coeymans, October 19, 1672; (second) a Miss Brouwer; (third), Catrina Boom, November 10, 1752. David Verplanck’s father was Isaac Verplanck, who was baptized June 26, 1641, and married Abigail Uytenbogart. Isaac Verplanck’s father was Abraham Isaacse Verplanck, of New Amsterdam, who emigrated to that place from Holland at a time when there were only fifteen houses on Manhattan Island, and was commander of the Dutch forces there under Governor Kieft in the first war with the Indians. In the house of the Verplancks at Fishkill, New York, where some of the family settled in 1682, the Society of the Cincinnati was formed. When he died he left 8,500 acres of the Coeymans Patent to each of his four children: Johannes, Ariaantje, Harriet and Isaac Davidse.

Ariaantje Coeymans, wife of David Verplanck, was the daughter of Barent Pieterse Coeymans, who purchased the enormous tract bearing his name. He was the son of Pieter Coeymans, also a miller, the progenitor of his family in America, who came from Utrecht in 1636, and he married the daughter of Andries De Vos. Barent, first owner of the mill at Coeymans, had litigation with the Patroon Van Rensselaer, because he had dealings before the Patroon with the native Indians for the tract of land measuring ten or twelve miles along the Hudson river. It was decided in Coeymans’ favor in 1714, and he obtained a patent from Queen Anne confirming the entire tract to him. Upon a commanding site, near the Hudson river, was erected the old stone mansion, the oldest building in the place, and still an object of great interest, once called the “Coeymans’ Castle.”

(III) Hon. Andrew J. Colvin was born at Coeymans, New York, April 30, 1808, and died at Albany, New York, July 8, 1889. He was corporation counsel of Albany; district attorney for Albany county, the first ever elected in that county, and state senator during 1860-1861. He was author of the act giving women their legal rights, and of the act abolishing the death penalty, which was restored after he left the senate. He was noted for his patriotism during the civil war, and was chosen by the legislature to be president of the joint session of the New York State assembly and senate, selected by the legislature to receive Abraham Lincoln on his visit to Albany, which was the only reception ever given by the state to the martyr President.

Andrew James Colvin married, at Newark, New Jersey, September 2, 1845, Margaret Crane Alling, daughter of Prudden Alling and Maria Halsey, of Newark, New Jersey. She was a niece of Colonel John Ford, and related to General Prudden of the revolutionary army, and by marriage of her aunt, Matilda (Rosekrans) Halsey, to General Ebenezer Foote of the Continental army, an old Delaware county family. She was a descendant of Roger Alling (1st) progenitor of the family in America, who came to this country in 1639, settling in New Haven, Connecticut.

When the Rev. Mr. Davenport proposed to found Yale College, Roger Alling was the first to respond and say he “would send his son” there. Roger Alling’s eldest son Samuel married Sarah Winston, of the old Cecil (Churchill, Marlborough) families; their eldest son, Samuel, Jr., married, at New Haven, in 1690, Sarah, daughter of Thomas Curry, and removed to Newark, New Jersey, 1702; their son, Samuel Alling (3d), the deacon, married Abigail Prudden, granddaughter of Rev. John Prudden (2nd), minister of the first church of Newark. They had a son, John Alling (3rd), first of Newark, who married Abigail Young of Newark; their son, John Alling (4th), born in 1746, at Newark, married Martha Crane, of Newark, a descendant of Jasper Crane. The third son of this John Alling (4th) was Prudden Alling, of Newark, born October 20, 1779, who married, March 16, 1806, Maria Halsey. Prudden Alling died at Newark, January 31, 1857. Their youngest daughter was Margaret Crane Alling, who was the mother of Verplanck Colvin.

Prudden Alling in later life had vessels plying between Savannah, Georgia, and Newark, New Jersey, and when he closed his business at the former place, drove all the distance in his carriage to Ballston, New York, to visit his relatives, the Ball family. He owned many negro slaves, but gave them all their freedom, as did also the Colvin family, setting them free in Albany county before the act emancipating slaves in New York state was passed.

Of interest to the family is the fact that a daughter of the Mr. Ball mentioned, married a Pierson, and was called by the Allings, “Aunty” Pierson. Her father, Mr. Ball, was a confidential officer of General Washington; was captured by the Hessians on Staten Island, and had his toes crushed by the butts of the muskets of these soldiers, and finally was killed by these soldiers. The Ball family was related to General Washington’s mother.

Prudden Alling had an uncle, General Prudden, who married a Miss Ogden, of Newark, New Jersey. General Prudden was high sheriff of Morris county when Washington had his headquarters there at and after the revolution, and he took his nephew, Prudden Alling, then a child, to Washington’s camp. It was there afterwards that the portrait of Prudden Alling was painted, showing him in scarlet coat and powdered hair in a queue, now owned by Alling Ward, in Ohio, son or grandson of General Prudden’s sister. A portrait of Washington was painted in the same style, and is now in the national capital. General Prudden brought up his nephew, Prudden Alling, from childhood. John Alling (4th), maternal great-grandfather of Verplanck Colvin, in 1775 joined a company of minute men of the American patriots and was chosen third lieutenant. He was in the battles fought at Newark and elsewhere. The family records published tell of his severe fighting, face to face, with the British, musket in hand, at Newark. In April, 1782, he was wounded, by a bayonet, in the thigh, and died December 2, 1795, aged forty-nine years. Prudden Alling, Verplanck Colvin’s grandfather, was twenty years old when President Washington died, and his acquaintance with and relationship to Washington was a valued feature of his life.

(IV) Hon. Verplanck Colvin, son of Hon. Andrew James Colvin and Margaret Crane Alling, was born at Albany, January 4, 1847. He was educated at home, then at the Albany Academy, and afterwards by private tutors. At a later period he was for a short time an instructor in surveying, engineering and geodesy at Hamilton College, New York. At Nassau, Rensselaer county, New York, whither his family removed shortly after the outbreak of the civil war, he indulged his taste for outdoor life and laid the foundation of his love for topographical science by preparing topographical maps of the country. He next studied law under his father, practicing successfully in the minor courts, but inclined more and more to scientific pursuits.

He kept up his interest in topography and military map reconnaissance; allied himself closely with the Albany Institute (one of the oldest and most eminent scientific and literary organizations in America, dating to 1791), and organized a very successful course of free scientific lectures in the State Geological Hall, Albany. Continuing his topographical and geological studies in 1865, he began his exploration of the Adirondack wilderness, corrected many errors in existing maps of that region, and during several successive summers continued this line of work so pleasing to him by natural bent. In 1870 he made the first ascent and measurement of the height of Mt. Seward, and about that time discovered the remarkable errors of the local variations of the compass needle in northern New York, which render bearings taken in most parts of these mountains valueless without long, skillful study. It was during this winter that he killed a huge bear in close combat in the snow, near Lake Pleasant, Hamilton county, in the Adirondacks.

In 1869 he made a critical topographical and geological survey of the Helderbergh mountains of New York, finely illustrated by his sketches. A brief abstract of this work was published by the Harpers — who had the famous engraver, Harry Fenn, prepare the wood cuts — and Mr. Colvin was paid by the Harpers at the same rate as General George B. McClellan and Horace Greeley, then among the most famous writers in America. This gave Verplanck Colvin a high position in American literature and led to more important work, among which was his intimate acquaintance with the great New York State Geologist, James Hall (who afterwards brought Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, when the latter was president of the Royal Society of Great Britain, to see Mr. Colvin). Mr. Colvin learned much from James Hall on geology; and the mathematics of meteorology and astronomy from Professor George W. Hough, late of the Dudley Observatory and Dearborn Observatory.

During the latter part of the winter of 1870 he traveled extensively through the Southern States, and by pen and pencil illustrated his account of these journeys. In 1871 he crossed the great plains to Colorado, visiting Wyoming, Nebraska and the Black Hills, and was the first to ascend, describe and map highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, subsequently writing an article for Harper’s Magazine, entitled “The Dome of the Continent,” which caused the name “Dome State” to be first applied to Colorado. He was elected an honorary member of the Rocky Mountain Club of Denver, an honor rarely conferred, such honor being limited to a few special explorers of the Rockies, including Lieutenant-General Philip H. Sheridan. In 1871 Mr. Colvin urged the creation of the Adirondack park and forest preserve. In 1872 he induced the New York state legislature to make the first appropriation for the state survey in the Adirondacks, and he was accordingly appointed superintendent of that valuable work, as well as of other state surveys; and in the same year he traced the Hudson river to its highest lake source, Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the southern flank of Mt. Marcy, and he was the first to visit. and name this lake and source of the Hudson.

In 1873 he was appointed one of the Commission of the State Parks of New York, having been the first to recommend making the Adirondack Forest Preserve, and in this commission was associated with William A. Wheeler, later vice-president of the United States, and Horatio Seymour, governor of New York.

In 1875 he made the first true measurement with level and rod of Mt. Marcy, the highest peak in New York state, proving its altitude to be 5,344 feet above sea level. His services have been of great value to the state and science at large, and the highest mountain on the eastern shore of the lower Ausable lake, in the eastern Adirondacks, bears his name. This title was given to the lake by Rev. Theodore L. Cuyler, of Brooklyn, New York, in the New York Independent, many years ago. Mr. Colvin was the first man to climb this mountain, and he has climbed and measured all the highest peaks of the Adirondack region.

In 1876 he explored the headwaters of the Moose river and Beaver river region, finding numerous lakes never before placed on any map. In 1877, while exploring on snowshoes among the mountains at the head of Red river, he encountered an enormous panther, which had just killed a deer, and he killed the panther by a single shot from his rifle.

In 1881 he was called upon to lecture on higher surveying and geodesy at Hamilton College, New York, at the suggestion of his friend, the great astronomer, Professor C. H. F. Peters (who was the discoverer of thirty-six of the minor planets of our solar system); and, at this time, Mr. Colvin was the guest of President Darling.

In 1882 he was chosen, with Governor Alonzo B. Cornell, one of the New York delegates to the first American Forestry Congress, and read an important paper before that learned body.

In 1883 he was given full and complete charge of the New York State Land Survey, which office he held a great many years. In 1888, when the national government was proposing to erect new gun foundries for the great cannon which have proved so excellent, he showed in an able paper that the most secure location for the factory was at the Watervliet arsenal, near Albany, that city being “the sole unconquered capital of the world.” Congress adopted his views, and he was called into consultation by the ordnance officers of the United States army. In recognition of this service the Albany Burgesses’ Corps presented Mr. Colvin with a handsome sword. In 1891 he was nominated for the office of state engineer and surveyor, and polled 538,000 votes, being 4,000 ahead of the candidate for governor.

In 1893 he represented the state of New York in the reception to the Duke of Veragua and family, the descendants of Columbus, at the capitol, and traveled with them to the lakes and mountains of this state, in this manner establishing a friendship with that family which has since been maintained by correspondence.

Mr. Colvin was chosen president of the ancient scientific society, the Albany Institute, to succeed the late Leonard Kip, the gifted author. As such he conducted it upon a high basis of learning, following his ideas that this organization was the leader in higher educational matters at Albany and the people should be made acquainted with all recent discoveries and inventions by listening to the descriptions given by the originators themselves. In this way he secured men of wide note to discuss topics of valuable historical, scientific and technical concerns of the day. His own paper, mathematically proving from the records given by Plutarch, that this continent was known to the Phoenecians and Carthagenians, is very important.

From the allusions made to Plutarch to the position of the star Saturn, to the direction of the sun at its extreme northerly elongation about the time of the first century of the Christian era, to the length of the days and nights at the extreme north point reached by the voyagers, to their account of stopping at Britain, and the distance sailed on the outward voyage to this continent, the height of the tides, the ice in the rivers, the warmth of the tropical climate of the countries upon the Mexican Gulf, and the voyage directly eastward, back to Carthage, Mr. Colvin has worked out, by astronomical and geographical formulae, on the basis of the observations of the Egyptian astronomer, Ptolemy, even the latitudes, directions and distances of the points referred to in the text of the ancient Roman writer, nearly two thousand years ago; and proved the knowledge of this continent by the ancients.

Mr. Colvin’s paper “On the true path of the moon in space,” showing that the earth and moon move around the sun like projectiles in wave-like curves, always concave toward the sun, and that, hence, the moon never goes around the earth in a circular or elliptical orbit, has made clear a very obscure question in astronomy and greatly facilitated the study of that science.

His address to the Grand Army of the Republic, delivered at Albany in 1896, was memorable, showing that the issues of the civil war were not closed when the military conflict ceased; but that the industrial problems which arose enter into the later political conditions, particularly in the competition of cheap negro labor in the South with white labor in the North, and that these issues are not to be finally settled without full consideration of the rights and wrongs of the human race through all of the historic conditions of the preceding ages of effort for civilization, the freedom to do right, and prevention of wrong, which were the underlying causes leading up to the civil war, and in the same way to the more recent Spanish-American war of 1898.

In 1898 Superintendent Colvin offered the services of himself and the chief officers and employees of his department to the state for military service in a letter to the adjutant-general; but the state militia was given preference, and he was ordered by the governor to continue his work in the civil service. His department was the only New York state civil division tendering its services for this war.

Mr. Colvin’s chief work has been in higher engineering and geodesy, much of the results of which has been published by the state in the form of reports to the legislature; but in addition to these are numerous pamphlets and a variety of publications made by him at various times. Many of his writings have been copiously illustrated or accompanied by valuable topographical maps, designs, plans and designs of things devised to improve and facilitate engineering work. They are considered far from being what is termed dry, and engage the thought of many a reader wishing to be well informed on New York state affairs especially appertaining to the Adirondack region. In this line he is the inventor of a portable boat to be used in making explorations; made improvements in telescopes, and discovered a method of securing the mean temperature of the atmosphere independent of the thermometer, by observations on the velocity of sound. He is the author of First Ascent of Mt. Marcy, published by the state in 1871; “The Helderberg Mountains,” illustrated, Harper’s, 1871; “The Dome of the Continent,” Harper’s, 1872.

He has also acted as consulting engineer on many important works, in the location of railroads, etc.; has been president of the Schenectady and Albany Railway Company, and a director and officer in other railroad companies. He was consulted in regard to the eastern extension of the Canadian Pacific Railway by Lord Mount Stephen and Sir William Van Horn, of that important corporation.

In his geographical explorations he has made large additions to knowledge. His map sketch of the snowy range of the Rocky Mountains around Gray’s Peak, made in 1870, was the first ever published, and has not been materially changed by any subsequent and more expensive and elaborate surveys.

In 1883, Seth Green, then superintendent for the State Fishery Commission, published an estimate that there were only three hundred lakes and ponds in New York state, and Mr. Colvin was called on to give an account of those which he knew in the Adirondacks and northern counties of New York, and furnished a list of those which he had either personally visited or which had been located by survey or reconnoissance, amounting to upwards of one thousand in that portion of the state alone, while there are many small ponds which have no names.

Under the law he was given charge of the surveys of all state land and the re-location and restoration of boundary lines which might be in litigation or dispute between the state and private parties. His surveys were made by law prima facie evidence in the courts of New York, when certified under his hand and official seal.

In 1902 Mr. Colvin was elected president of the New York Canadian Pacific Railway Company, a railroad reorganized in 1905, from three separate companies previously chartered by the state of New York, viz.: The New York & Albany railroad (150 miles); the Schenectady & Albany railroad (18 miles); and the New York Northern railroad (nearly 200 miles). The united stock of these railway companies already authorized by law (forming the new company of 1905) is $10,150,000, and bonds authorized and recorded are $6,000,000, covering the right-of-way acquired. The work of constructing these railways was begun under the late President Joseph H. Ramsey, the former president and builder of the Albany & Susquehanna railroad, the $100 stock of which now commands $270 per share in the market. About $2,000,000 has been expended upon the construction work of the consolidated new company (the New York Canadian Pacific Railway Company) and its completion is greatly desired by the people along its line.

Mr. Colvin is a member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, honorary member of the Club Alpine Français of Paris, the Adirondack Club, fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, honorary member of the similar society in Great Britain, Sons of the Revolution, corresponding member of the Appalachian Mountain Club of Boston, Massachusetts, and Sierra Club of California; was the first honorary president of the Adirondack Guides’ Association, president of Albany Chamber of Commerce, of the Scotch “Burns Club” of Albany, the New York State Historical Society, Albany Institute, life member of the National Geographic Society, a foundation member of the Fortnightly Club, and he is also allied with several other organizations of similar nature.

Mr. Colvin is not married. He resides in the old homestead of the Colvin family in Albany, situated in his park among the great trees in the heart of the city of Albany, in the large and beautiful place known as “The Elms,” on Western avenue, it being the same place in which his grandmother and his father previously resided; and the spacious grounds have been a garden since old colonial times.

More information about the life and work of Verplanck Colvin may be found at the Colvin Crew.

GENUKI/Devon: Devon History (1850)

\l ”


DEVONSHIRE, the largest county in England, except Yorkshire, and the most ….. As noticed at page 52, the ROMANS had their chiefstation in this county at Exeter, from …. Archibalistarius, 11; Wm. Hostiarus, 10; Godwin, 11; and Colvin, 8. … The greater part of the manors were held by under tenants, who rendered suit and …

The  COLVIN  PATROON  and  the  Dutch  West  India Company    ( Corporation )  BRITISH  to the very core   Good Old  Verplanck  Colvin    ……. 

The Hudson: America’s River – Google Books Result

Frances F. Dunwell – 2013 – ‎Art

With these words, young Colvin began his campaign to conserve the forest in the … Verplanck, inherited muchofthe large Coeymans land patent south of Albany.

In the United States, a patroon (English pronunciation: /pəˈtrn/; from Dutch patroon) was a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland in North America.[1] Through the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 1629, the Dutch West India Company first started to grant this title and land to some of its invested members. These inducements to foster colonization and settlement (also known as the “Rights and Exemptions”), are the basis for the patroon system.

The deeded tracts were called patroonships and could span 16 miles in length on one side of a major river, or 8 miles if spanning both sides. In 1640 the charter was revised to cut new plot sizes in half, and to allow any Dutch American in good standing to purchase an estate. The title of patroon came with powerful rights and privileges. A patroon could create civil and criminal courts, appoint local officials and hold land in perpetuity. In return, he was required by the Dutch West India Company to establish a settlement of at least 50 families within four years on the land.[2] As tenants working for the patroon, these first settlers were relieved of the duty of public taxes for ten years, but were required to pay rent to the patroon. A patroonship sometimes had its own village and other infrastructure, including churches.

After the English takeover of New Netherland in 1664, the system continued with the granting of large tracts known as manors, and sometimes referred to as patroonships.


Rockefellers ,  Hochschilds ,   Rothschilds  Grand Scheme


Re-establishing  British  Forest Laws

Complete with a  Grand  North  Way

History of Sherwood Forest – Nottinghamshire County Council

Sherwood Country Park lies just north of Edwinstowe, two miles from Ollerton and 17 … The main London to York road, the Great North Way, ran straight through …

note ….  The Vast  Grants and Patents  HONORED By  King  George Washington  (  Former  British Officer  )   He especially honored His and His Wife’s  Land Grants


 New York Grants to the Very Well Connected

YES  The  Adirondacks  Forest  Complete with a  Grand  North Way

Adirondack Survey

The Adirondack Forest Preserve by Grand Old Royal Design

 ‘Forest’ was a legal term, and meant an area subject to special Royal laws designed to protect the valuable resources of timber and game (Vert and Venison) within its boundaries. These laws were strictly and severely imposed by agisters, foresters, verderers (wardens) and rangers, who were all were employed by the Crown.

The Hudson: America’s River – Google Books Result

Frances F. Dunwell – 2013 – ‎Art

With these words, young Colvin began his campaign to conserve the forest in the … Verplanck, inherited muchofthe large Coeymans land patent south of Albany.

Rockefeller’s Temporary

Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks

The Hochschild Plans   (   Yes  Hochschild  Mining

Administrative files of the Temporary Study Commission on …

This series consists solely of transcripts of six public hearings held by the Temporary Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks in 1969 and 1970.

In the wake of the controversy, brother Nelson, then governor of New York State, appointed a Temporary StudyCommission on the Future of the Adirondacks.   Harold Hochschild, who founded the Adirondack Museum, became chairman.       An instrumentality of Adam Hochschild, funded primarily by HKH Foundation, the inherited wealth of the AMAX mining fortune of Harold K. Hochschild.


Jun 15, 1986 – All these burdens were Adam Hochschild’s, and more. … in 1942, who controlled Amax Inc., one of the largest miningcompanies in the world. … Harold Hochschild, Adam’s father, was a German Jew whose father arrived in …

Cuomo challenges NY to notice Adirondacks| NCPR News

His “Adirondack Challenge” was designed to draw attention to the tourism potential of … Tourism is big business for us, it’s a big part of … dream the Adirondacks …

Tourism Business, Community and Environment in the Adirondacks

Tourism Business, Community and Environment in the Adirondacks1. Executive SummaryTourism is … Labor market issues are the biggest problem for Adirondack …


[PDF]Saratoga Springs NY Saratogian 1970 –…/Saratoga%20Springs%20NY%20Saratogian%2019…

Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller outlined a program … Rockefelleremphasized that the party. “must spread its …. missioner; Carl DeSantis, Warren. County GOP … and Richard J. Bartlett. Mrs. Paul F. ….. Park, as a county representative to the.

 Rockefeller National Historic Park. …… Virgil Bartlett buys Backwoods Lodge on the Upper Saranac Lake-Round L. carry. 1854 …… The Howard Johnson Chain, c/o Joe DeSantis, opens at Lake George


“We have to have greater economic growth because we just can’t

raise the taxes any further.”   Nelson Rockefeller   1970

Carl DeSantis, Warren County GOP chairman; former Assemblyman Stanley Van Rensselaer

and Richard J. Bartlett.


Adirondack Journal — Fifty Years of History

The Adirondack Museum celebrates its golden anniversary in 2007. … History can capture the imagination and inspire great events – including the founding of a … Harold Hochschild a New York City business executive, long-time seasonal … and a grand resort hotel, the Prospect House in Blue Mountain Lake, New York.

Lots  and Lots and Lots of  BUCKS  for the very well connected -  JW

Harold Hochschild a New York City business executive, long-time seasonal Adirondack resident and lay historian published Township 34, a history of the Central Adirondacks, in 1952. The book furnished a plan and its author guidance and financial support for the Adirondack Museum through the first decades of its development.

William West Durant was born in Brooklyn in 1850, and educated in England and Germany. His father, Dr. Thomas C. Durant, a vice-president of the Union Pacific railroad, accumulated one of the great fortunes in nineteenth century America. By the 1880s the Durant family had acquired 658,261 acres of Adirondack land and William arrived in the region to manage the family’s investments.

Accustomed to refinement, Durant modeled his Adirondack developments after the baronial hunting estates of European aristocracy. In the process he developed the unique architectural style for what became known as Adirondack Great Camps.

Owners of Great Camps acquired vast land holdings, which included wilderness lakes, ponds, and rivers. The camps, actually small isolated villages, were self-sufficient, and often included working farms, greenhouses, icehouses, and even chapels. They were very expensive to build and maintain.

The region’s isolation was a major obstacle to Durant’s development plans. In an effort to attract wealthy tourists, the family built and operated railroads, steamboats lines, roads, sawmills, and a grand resort hotel, the Prospect House in Blue Mountain Lake, New York. By the 1890s Durant was financially overextended.

Despite his growing money problems, Durant began a new project in the spring of 1899; the Eagle’s Nest Country Club. In the summer of 1900 the country club and its golf course were opened with a series of exhibition matches played by the Scottish professional, Harry Vardon. Vardon’s fee was $500 for the week and a bottle of Scotch whiskey every night. On Saturday night, August 4, to celebrate the opening, Durant gave a dance at the club’s casino, to the music of an eight-piece orchestra, brought from Utica.

Durant spent nearly $70,000 building the Eagle’s Nest Country Club.

By 1904, awash in a sea of lawsuits, including one brought by his own sister, Durant lost control of his Adirondack lands. The assets of Durant’s company were seized by creditors who, in turn, sold the country club’s land to three New York City men: Ernst Ehrman, Henry Morgenthau Sr., and Berthold Hochschild. The three formed a holding company for the land called the Eagle Nest Country Club.

Beginning in 1904 Berthold Hochschild, his wife Mathilde, and his sons Harold and Walter spent June through September every year at Eagle Nest. First the father, then the sons, commuted on the New York Central’s sleeper car from Grand Central Station in New York City to spend weekends at the family’s summer home

Durant’s railroad-steamboat network was still the principal means for getting to the region in 1904. Twelve-year-old Harold Hochschild was captivated by the train and the steamboats. Hoping for a chance to handle the steam-engine’s throttle, he cultivated a friendship with Rassie Scarritt, driver of the H.K Porter Engine on the Marion River Carry Railroad, the shortest standard-gauge line in the world. The engine towed two open passenger cars and a baggage car purchased from the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. in 1900. The total distance covered in the trip was 1300 yards.

Early on Harold began collecting information about the region. He amassed boxes of research materials, letters, Photostats, typescripts, and notebooks containing his penciled notes. His folders, ranging from “Adirondack Iron Works” to “Wild Animals,” are organized by subject in alphabetical order.

Harold’s research notes were the basis for an extensive history of the region. Serious work on the project did not begin until after World War II. Working nights and weekends, Harold researched his book, interviewing as many “old timers” as possible. When Township 34 appeared in 1952, it contained 614 quarto-sized pages, 470 illustrations, 39 maps, 24 appendices, a bibliography, index, and weighed seven pounds without its slipcover. 600 copies were printed.

The publication of Harold Hochschild’s book coincided with William Wessels’ idea of converting the Blue Mountain House, a summer resort high above Blue Mountain Lake, into a museum dedicated to Adirondack history.

The Adirondack Museum was a marriage between a wonderfully scenic site supplied by William Wessels, and the intellectual framework and financial support provided by Harold Hochschild. Many of the museum’s original exhibits were derived from Township 34. The Adirondack Museum opened to the public on August 4, 1957.

Nothing reflects the Adirondack region’s powerful hold on Harold Hochschild’s imagination as much as the museum’s Marion River Carry Pavilion. The pavilion contains the H.K. Porter Engine and passenger cars of Durant’s Marion River Carry Railroad. The train was brought to the museum in 1956, saved from decay in the woods where it had been abandoned.

The Marion River Carry Pavilion includes an automated diorama, known fondly as “the boat train,” that illustrates the history of the complicated, turn-of-the-last -century network of railroads and steamboats that connected the region to the outside world when Harold Hochschild was a boy.

Every year, thousands of museum visitors of all ages linger at the diorama, listening as the recorded “voice” of the display tells the story of the Marion River Carry Railroad – listening to history brought to life.

Those that created the  PARK and their

Political Forces have cleaned up

History – Lake George Mirror

… great resort hotels, the destruction of the mansions along LakeShore Drive, and the proliferation of motels and tourist cabins – the Mirror itself changed little.

State Legislators Praise Praise Cuomo for Promoting Adirondack Tourism.




Richard Bartlett – The Post Star…

The Post‑Star

May 7, 2015 – Arrow Financial declares cash dividend. GLENS FALLS | The Board of Directors of Arrow Financial Corp. declared a quarterly cash dividend of …

 PDF]RICHARD J. BARTLETT Biographical Data – Crandall Public …

Principal in law firm of Bartlett, Pontiff, Stewart & Rhodes, P.C., Glens Falls, since … Director, Arrow Financial Corp. and Glens Falls National Bank and Trust …

arrow financial corp – Edgar-online

The undersigned shareholder(s) of Arrow Financial Corporation, a New York corporation. (the “Company”), hereby appoint(s) RichardJ. Bartlett, Esq. and …

the Mining – Facebook

If you take a good hard look at the Adirondack Park and WHO Gave It Life You’ll … David and Nelson Rockefeller and Carl DeSantis and Richard Bartlett and …

Prospect Mountain – The Adirondack Almanack

Adirondack Family Activities:  Diane Chase: Lake George’s Prospect Mountain …. Assembly and served through 1958, when he was succeeded by Richard Bartlett. … Former Lake George ParkCommission Chairman Carl DeSantis says of …

  1. [PDF]The Plan for the Future of the Lake George Park, 1987
  2. Edward Hood, Assistant Director for Adirondack Park Plan. James W. Hotaling … Richard Bartlett. Lyman A. Beeman, Jr. … Carl DeSantis. Steering Committee.
    1. [PDF]Warrensburg NY Lake George News 1967-1968 Grayscale


    The Adirondack Mountains of New-. York State have a large …. DeSantis, and. Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Bartlett. … were devised by Carl DeSantis,. Joseph Cicco …

  3. Warrensburg NY Lake George News 1968-1970 Grayscale…/Warrensburg%20NY%20Lake%20George%20News%…

    Richard Bartlett … R. Grant Fleck, President for the Adirondack Park Asso. William Busch Jr. Chairman, for the Lake George. Park Commission … John T. Garry 2nd, Joseph A Garry Jr., CarlDeSantis, Robert J. Cronin, John C. Mannix, Arto.

[PDF]ANNUAL REPORT – Lake George Association

the restored wetlands are taking shape, and the park design is progressing. …. Additional information was supplied to the Adirondack Park Agency (APA) and the New …… Richard Bartlett. Karen and …. Barbara and Carl Desantis, Sr. Richard …



Temporary Commission 1970

THE  PUPPET  MASTERS  …….   WHO  really  owns  AMERICA

4 hrs ·
Outlined in today’s Wall Street Journal: A few weeks after Hillary Clinton was sworn in as secretary of state in early 2009, she was summoned to Geneva by her Swiss counterpart to discuss an urgent……

The Money Masters (1996) [FULL DOCUMENTARY …

The Money Masters is a 1996 three and a half hour non-fiction, historical documentary film that discusses the …

The Story of Your Enslavement – YouTube

Apr 17, 2010 – Uploaded by Stefan Molyneux

We can only be kept in the cages we do not see. A brief history of human enslavement – up to and including …

The Lie We Live | The Story of Your Enslavement – YouTube

Feb 18, 2015 – Uploaded by Critical Penguin – The Lie We Live actual video!! Two incredible short films I couldn’t resist re …

Royal US Presidents

I found that George Washington was of royal blood. …. Clinton’sroyal roots include several medieval monarchs and Simon de Montford, a statesman and soldier …

Hillary, Bush, and Queen Elizabeth II are all related!!, page 1 …

Hillary Rodham Clinton, and Barbara Pierce Bush (Dubya’s Mom), are both … De Clare is a direct originator of a bloodline that includes Hillary Rodham Clinton, …. A quick search has lead to topics concerning royal bloodlines.

some notes


Hochschild, DeSantis, Bartlett, Rockefeller and ALL  Their  Cronies   Judge  Dier,  The Littles, Frosts, Good Old  Judge  Crangle,  The  Halls,  Post Star  and the Whole  GANG.

AGENDA 21 Under Cover Fwd: Mining The Good Old Adirondacks By Smoke and Mirror

to david, jackie, brian, natasha, nora, martha, ellen, info, info, info, Annette, JKSalvador, Carmen, FOIL, atginfo, civilrights, consumerquesti., Records, lcc, R5, Scot, adirondacks, kamayo_smith, ralovera, APA
AGENDA 21 Under Cover …..
A Global World Bank Agenda ……

It sure is coincidental that David and Nelson Rockefellers Wealthy Cronies (Carl DeSantis and Richard Bartlett Et Al ) and the Fed Reserve and World Central Banks have been Mining the State of New York and the Adirondack Park for Decades …. Actually the Super Rich have been Extracting Adirondack and Kattskill and New York Looting since the BRITISH and FRENCH LANDED …. No Wonder There was that BIG French and Indian War Aroostick War and Border Disputes with Canada and the American Revolution and War of 1812 and the Civil War and War in Europe …. It’s all about EXTRACTING NATURAL RESOURCES WEALTH and Environmental Tourism Bucks Lets Not Forget the Bucks in Environmentalism and Tourism.

Funny Stuff Hey Fellas

AGENDA 21 a Giant Ponzi Scheme and Robbery
Date: Sun, Sep 23, 2012 at 5:25 AM
Subject: Mining The Good Old Adirondacks By Smoke and Mirror

FUND for Lake George
2199a Route 9 / PO Box 352
Lake George, NY 12845

Lake George Waterkeeper
2199a Route 9 / PO Box 591
Lake George, NY 12845
Mining The Good Old Adirondacks By Smoke and Mirror ?

AGENDA 21 Under Cover …..

So We Have Lake Sand and Delta Dredging / Mining Planned for Lake George YUP Mining the Great Sacandaga and Lake George for vast Gold and Precious Metals and Minerals is coming to Lake George and all the other Adirondack Water Sheds. Sediment Basins and Tanks what is in the Bottom of them again ???

If you take a good hard look at the Adirondack Park and WHO Gave It Life You’ll Find a Grand Scheme to Lock It Up so certain Very Wealthy Families could do the Back Door Con and Reap Vast Benefits from Environmental Tourism and real Estate Development and Lawyering and Banking and North Way Development and many many many other Investment Projects all filtering back to … The World Central Banks and the Federal Reserve. Oil and Gas and Metals and Timber and Park Lands and Park Jobs and all those Lawyers and Courts and State Agency Pay Checks and Retirement, Medicak and Dental … AH Lots of Money for the Very Well Connected.

Now lets see … WHO IS IT That Brought Us The APA again … Carl DeSantis and Richard Bartlett and
The Rockefellers.

The Primary Owners of the Federal Reserve Bank Are:
“The Primary Owners of the Federal Reserve Bank Are:

1. Rothschild’s of London and Berlin

2. Lazard Brothers of Paris

3. Israel Moses Seaf of Italy

4. Kuhn, Loeb & Co. of Germany and New York

5. Warburg & Company of Hamburg, Germany

6. Lehman Brothers of New York

7. Goldman, Sachs of New York

8. Rockefeller Brothers of New York

So We Have Lake Sand and Delta Dredging YUP Mining the Great Sacandaga for vast Gold and Precious Metals and Minerals is coming to Lake George and all the other Adirondack Water Sheds and Vast New Luxury Condos Being Built for the Banksters and Insurance Companies and Ultra Wealthy in the Very Heart of he Park.

David and Nelson Rockefeller and Carl DeSantis and Richard Bartlett and those Sneaky World Banksters the Rockefeller GANG and Agenda 21 Environmentalism that have brought you financing for all the APA and Nature Conservancy Purchases and all the DEC and other Land Conservancy Financing and Grants from International Paper and Finch Pryn et al GO FIGURE $$$$$$$$$$$$$

Bottom of Great Sacandaga Lake eyed for mineral trove…/local/article_7c450c5e-c361-11df-adb7-001cc4c
Dredging could improve the lake’s coldwater fisheries, and also help combat erosion on the lake’s shores, said Randy Gardinier, chairman of the Great Sacandaga Lake …
Seeing benefit at the bottom of a lake – Times Union…/arti…/Seeing-benefit-at-the-bottom-of-a
Ambrosino’s interest in the geology of the Great Sacandaga Lake began in the … Seeing benefit at the bottom of a lake Texan says dredging Great Sacandaga can …
Bottom of Great Sacandaga Lake eyed for mineral trove…/local/bottom-of-great-sacandaga-lake-eyed-for
If someone starts dredging the Great Sacandaga Lake, be careful. I believe the lake bed is owned by the Black River/Hudson River Regulating District.
Mining the Great Sacandaga Lake – Saratoga Seen – Saratoga ……/mining-the-great-sacandaga-lake/7178
NO, NO, NO!!! Is Mr. Ambrosino going to personally fund the environmental impact study for the dredging of the reservoir? It seems to me that profit is the EXACT …
Arthur M. Ambrosino MS thesis abstract
Sediment characteristics around the Kenyon Island Group, Great Sacandaga Lake (NY): economic potential of dredging and land reclamation Arthur M. Ambrosino 2001
Great Sacandaga Lake minerals could mean big money ……/content.detail/id/514983
A boat pulls a wakeboarder in July on the Great Sacandaga Lake in Northampton. … of Environmental Conservation, do not anticipate issuing any permits for dredging …
River currents interrupt Hudson dredging – Dredging News Online
… slowed the first week of the dredging project on the river. Quoting the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the report said releases from the GreatSacandaga …
Engineer says deepening lake would benefit area – ……
GREAT SACANDAGA LAKE – There’s big money below the surface of the GreatSacandaga Lake … of Environmental Conservation, do not anticipate issuing any permits for dredging ……
Adirondack Club and Resort Project – Tupper Lake
… of the Adirondack Park and the Town of Tupper Lake. … that the Adirondack Park Agency (APA … to the financial risk related to second home and condo …
NCPR News Topics – big-tupper
… and Resort won permission to build more than 700 luxury homes and condos … voted 10-to-1 to approve development of a massive new resort in Tupper Lake. The vote at APA…
Adirondack Club & Resort Gets Permit From The APA…/01/adirondack-club-resort.html
Late last week the Adirondack Park Agency (APA) voted … building more than 700 luxury homes and condos in the area. This will no doubt bring people to Tupper Lake…
Related searches for Tupper Lake APA Condos
elizabeth Apa elizabeth Aparicio elizabeth Aparna elizabeth Apazidis elizabeth Apel … elizabeth Condo elizabeth Condon elizabeth Condrick elizabeth Cone elizabeth Cones
APA to vote on huge resort project – WCAX.COM Local Vermont ……/16559379/apa-to-vote-on-huge-resort-project
Tupper Lake, New York – January 19, 2012. The Adirondack … to build more than 700 luxury homes and condos near the Big Tupper … this week, an environmental group asked APA …
Green groups question Cuomo’s role in Big Tupper review | NCPR ……/st…/20509/20120919/protect
… decision to grant permits for a big new resort in Tupper Lake. … filed a freedom of information request with the APA … vote, allowing construction of great home camps,condos …
Green light for resort – Adirondack Explorer News Magazine ……/2…/02/15/green-light-for-resort
… Council voices support for huge resort in Tupper Lake, revealing split in environmental movement shortly before the APA … his partners to build 660 luxury homes and condos…
ADK_threat – Sierra Club: Atlantic Chapter
… near Tupper Lake remains on paper one of the most serious threats to the Adirondacks in 40 years of Adirondack Park Agency (APA) history. Its650 luxury homes and condos …

Agenda 22APA


 THE ADIRONDACKS CONSPIRACY  Copy Written 7/18/2015  All Rights Reserved

For Mother and Dad


 The  Manner in which  Clifford and Anita  Witham were swindled.  600 Acres Their Home and Family Marina and Yes Folks  to  Bartlett’s  Harris  Bay  Development  Corp  and the  STATE OF  NEW YORK

Thanks to the Lake George Mill Pond Mafia

Listen to the ORAL Evidence from the US Supreme Court


SEE   Also
SwampMarina  East Shores
 Mother    AMarina2
Cliff   Brad
HarrisBay   LG
  1. Glens Falls Post Star 1946 Jan-Jun Grayscale


    Glens Falls Girl. Becomes Bride of. Hudson Foils Man. Miss Lou Brown Witham, daugh- ter of Mrs. Clifford BWitham., 121. Cunningham Avenue, city, and the.

  3. Billboard – Mar 9, 1946 – Google Books Result

    Vol. 58, No. 10 – ‎Magazine

    Clifford BWitham Jr., in the automatic phonograph business here, had the following suggestions: That the legs on a pin game be painted from the bottom up for …

    A CLEAR DAY IN THE LIFE OF CLIFFORD B. WITHAM…/clear-day-life-cliffordbwitham

    EBSCOhost serves thousands of libraries with premium essays, articles and other content including A CLEAR DAY IN THE LIFE OF CLIFFORD BWITHAM.

    Ethicsgate: Letter to New York Governor Andrew Cuomo Re ……/…

    Feb 15, 2013 – My Father and His Mother as well as My Brother Clifford has gone to the sale to bid … Clifford B Witham and Anita Witham, et al as def.

    1. A Lake George Park: Enlisting Women to the Cause – – The …

    2. Feb 26, 2013 – … of creating a park were several millionaires, including William KBixby, who … By 1921, he had asked Hilda Loines to keep him informed about the latest news. … He also recruited Sylvia, the youngest of the three daughters, …
      1. Saving the islands at lake george – SlideShare

      Jun 1, 2014 – Boathouse – William KBixby Hilda and Sylvia Loines; 28. The Roosevelt connection…According to papers in the Apperson archives, FDR had …

      1. One Rock at a Time – SlideShare

      Aug 9, 2012 – Mrs. Mary Loines, and daughters (Hilda and Sylvia)Mary Loines‘ gift … Friends Who Shared the Dream The Loines family William KBixby; 19.

      1. read more – Adirondack Wild: Friends of the Forest Preserve

      Feb 17, 2013 – … William KBixby, and George Knapp, along with several influential …. at GE), or the Loines sisters (Sylviaand Hilda – who helped him make …

      1. [PDF]Becoming a Conservationist – Virginia History Exchange

      About 80% of our patrons to the Fort William Henry Hotel, at Lake George, last …. William KBixby … Hilda Loines became a sort of first … Sylvia, the youngest.

    Catalogue of the Library of the Arnold Arboretum of …

    Arnold Arboretum. Library – 1917 – ‎Botany

    st ruction of dams and the storage of waters on the forest preserve for public purposes. New York. 1907. (Association for the protection of the Adirondacks.

    John S. Apperson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Among the most notable of Apperson’s organizations: Forest Preserve Association of New York State, organized 1934. New York state Trails Conference, Inc., …

    Adirondack History Center Museum/Essex County Historical …

    1891 The Adirondack Guides Association is formed. … 1906 The New York State Forest, Fish and Game Commission releases one … 1913 The New York State Conservation Commission adopts regulations permitting lean-tos in the Forest Preserve. … 1934The Adirondack Mountain Club publishes Orra Phelps’ A Guide to .
    from: SwampFox <>
    date: Sun, Jul 19, 2015 at 6:37 AM
    subject: FOIL / FOIA REQUEST

    ( For  Mr. and Mrs.  Swamp Fox )

Greetings All
Dear Lake George Association,  Union College,  NY  DEC / EVCON /  Adirondacks Museum  ,   Et Al
I would like to request Your records on Mill Pond Issues regarding Low and High Lake Levels on Lake George.  I would ask that these records include but not be limited to the following records.
Lake George association. Water committee.
Report on the cause and effect of abnormally
high and low water in Lake George, n.p. 1932. 15p. Report prepared by E.
MacD. Stanton, dated Aug. 19, 1932. 2845
The many years of Shoreline Erosion and Damage caused by High and Low Water and Ice  as chronicled by Your Group includes many years of John Apperson and Irving Langmuir   should be included as well as all and any other photographs, charts, writings or electronic records regarding  Mill Pond or Dam Manipulation of Ice Sheet and Water Levels Your Group has records of.
It is apparent that Lake George water was and continues to me used by Power and Mill Operators along the LaChute river.   The vast flushing of mill wastes in Lake Champlain by the Lake George Pulp and Paper, Glens Falls Pulp and Paper ,  International  Pulp and Paper among others has been directly  responsible for the  Mill Pond Operations  Your  Association has been involved in exposing .   Any records You have knowledge of or control over  please include those as well.    FOIA  allows  for  the  production of these records in  Digital or  Electronic  Format and such images would be greatly appreciated.
The  Collection from the  Adirondack  Museum and  the  Apperson  Collection at  Paul Schaffer Library  ,  Union  College,  NYS  EVCON /  DEC   and The Kelly Adirondack Center  are specifically requested.  Other resources and collections of these records are as well requested.
The VAST  FLUSHING  of  Mill Wastes, Sewage, Chemicals and a virtual mountain of Toxic Sludge was hydraulically FLUSHED  using Lake George Water Like a  GIANT COMMODE FLUSHER to move these wastes into Lake Champlain.  The Composition of the Sewage, Oils, Greases, Chemicals, PCBS, Dioxins, Black Liqueur, Lignin, Bio Hazardous Waste and all sorts of Household and Commercial Chemicals and Wastes  from Ticonderoga being FLUSHED.
I would ask that any maps, photographs, charts  and  chemical testing and sampling records of this  GIANT SLUDGE BED also be shared.   100,000 +  Tandem Truck Loads  ( 1.5  Million  Cubic Yards  a Column of Tandem Trucks  475 Miles Long )  would certainly  destroy  Lake George.  Imagine it’s  effects on Lake Champlain.
The Public Interests that this request serves is greatly significant and the Maps, Photos, Charts, Testing and Data / Information will be freely  released via internet to the General Public in the Public Interests.   I would ask for a  FEE  WAIVER  and ALL  FREE  Copies available to be produced in Electronic Format.   The Enormous  Chemical and Hazardous Wastes Flushed into Lake Champlain Using  Lake George Water Levels is of a  Great Public Concern.    Water used in this Mill Pond Operation effects  millions of Americans and Canadians as well as Visitors from Around The World.
Thank  You
Judson Witham
Please respond with  ELECTRONIC  IMAGES and COPIES of These  Requested Records
cc:   Ellen  Apperson  Brown
also    Of Course We Have The History ………  Adirondack Chronology – Protect the Adirondacks

John S. Apperson – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


John Samuel Apperson, Jr. (6 April 1878 – 1 February 1963), known as Appie, … notably Dome Island, from erosion due to varying water levels at paper mills.



3:43 PM (2 hours ago)

to contactinfobondh2northrocMO-RecordsAcce.jpepperasnyelriceinfo.R5fwfish4Billfred.dunlapvoorhees.jeannepaula.mario, bcc: contact
COPY  FOR    DEC   Division  of  Land  Acquisition  /   Forest Preserve  Land Purchasing /  NYS  Attorney General /  Governor  Andrew Cuomo
Copy to  New York State Department of Public Works, NYS  Department of Transportation,  NYS  Forest Preserve,  NYS  Department of Environmental Conservation  also  State  AG  Schneiderman and Governor Andrew Cuomo.
Re.  Witham  FOIL /  FOIA  Demand.

Some Background  See

Dear NYS DOT  and Department of Public Works/  DEC , Warren County, Town of Queensbury, State of New York, Lake George Association, DEC,  NYS State Forest Preserve,  NYS  Commissioner of  Public Works,  Attorney General State of New York,   Office of the Governor  New York State  Et Al ……..
ALL  Parties, Respondents and Interveners recorded in the Judicial Record above reveal Warren County  and  Queensbury  are deeply involved and witnesses to the WINTER TIME  Lake George Lake Level Manipulations.
The State of New York’s  FINGER PRINTS   are  all over the Destruction of Clifford and Anita Witham’s  Marina at Harris Bay  (  The Swamp / East Shores Harbour Marina ).
The New York State Attorney General,  State Forest Preserve, Director of New York Public Works,  THE EMPIRE STATE  …. Their Agents, Representatives, Employees and Agencies records concerning these matters are AGAIN  herein requested.  FOIA  and FOIL  are  again invoked by Myself.
DEC,  The New York Forest Preserve,  New York Attorney General and Governor of the State’s  records are demanded.
1.  The Records of the Lake Bed Ownership by New York State
2.  The photos, charts and maps of shoreline erosion and destruction as addressed in the Lake George Trespassing Cases.
3. The records which reveal the Lake George Association Agents and Representatives that are the POLICE Authority for Water Quality and Lake Levels on Lake George during the tears 1943 –  1972
4.  Records reflecting  Paper Making Operations and Water Usage from Lake George for Papermaking during the WINTER MONTHS during the years   1900 –  1972
5.  The Sewage from Ticonderoga Flushed or Dumped into the LaChute River  from 1900 – 1972
6.  Mill Wastes Discharges into the LaChute River from 1900 –  1972  by ALL  Polluters of the LaChute River and Lake Champlain.
7.   During the Lake George Trespassing Cases   a great number of exhibits were introduced by New York State’s Lawyers and the Lawyers for both Defendants and Plaintiffs ….. the records are requested as well as the records of where they are being archived and preserved.
8.  Investigation files by the Forest Preserve and Department of Conservation which appertain to Land Owners, Land to be Protected, Land to be Acquired and lands desired to be purchased for the State Forest Preserve in the Lake George Basin.
9.  Investigation and land records for the Wetlands at Dunhams Bay, Catskill Bay and Harris Bay compiled by New York State for the Forest Preserve, DEC or the State in connection with investigations of Land Owners.
10.  Investigation of land owned by  Howard Mason,  Clifford and Anita Witham known as the  Harris Bay  Wetlands and ALL  Transactional  and Payment Records from New York State to  The  Harris Bay  Development Corporation,  The Saint Sacrement Landing Corporation and the Old Causeway Corporation which appertain to the Witham Family.
11.  The State’s records which reflect the Department of Land Acquisition for the State Forest Preserve or  DEC which reflect the title examinations,  appraisals,  environmental importance or environmental protection mission for lands within the Lake George Park and the Adirondack Park Generally.
12.  The financial records of all owners, operators, financiers, principles and interests that profited from the use of Lake George Water for Electricity and Paper Making Machines located along the LaChute River from the Rock Dam to Dam ” A” and below to Lake Champlain for the Years 1900  through 1972.
13.    All records which reflect  Papermaking and Electrical Generation operations between Lake George  and Lake Champlain  during the  WINTER …..  Ice and Snow  Cover Months  for the  Years  1900 –  1972.
14.  All Maps, Testing, Photographs, Films and other Records regarding the  SEWAGE  and Mill Wastes   FLUSHED and DUMPED into the LaChute River by the Village and Town of  Ticonderoga  as well as the  Mills and Industries that dumped  Chemicals and paper Wastes  ETC ETC  into the  Sewage laden LaChute   during the Years  1900 –  1972.     NOTE  the  SEWAGE and MILL WASTES  Sludge /  Slop and Mess  currently laying on the bottom of the LaChute and all around Fort Ticonderoga on the Bottom of Lake Champlain  are  requested.
15.   Records of Clean Up Operations of any kind to remove the  SEWAGE and Mill Wastes mess referenced herein are requested for any period Clean Up and Removal of the  Mess occurred.
16.   Investigations of Anita and Clifford Witham regarding the Witham Marinas at Katskill and Harris Bay are requested and ALL Records of Monies Expended for purchasing the Wetlands at Warner/ Katskill and Harris Bays for  Witham or  Harris Bay Development Corporation lands are requested.
I ask that all responses be made in an ELCTRONIC RECORDS FORMAT  and that the Public Interests in this information be taken into consideration and that fee waivers be granted in the Public Interest.
Thank You
Judson Witham
Thank You
Judson Witham

The  Robber  Barons  In  Action

The 100 Most Important American Financial Crises: An Encyclopedia of …

Quentin R. Skrabec Jr. – 2014 – ‎Business & Economics

Credit tightened throughout the nation as banks attempted to reduce their exposure to speculative land purchases. The firm of Robert Morris and John Nicholson …

A History of Financial Crises: Dreams and Follies of Expectations

Cihan Bilginsoy – 2014 – ‎Business & Economics

Within the three years following 1833 the number of state-chartered banks increased by 50 … and merchants, many of whom were engaged in land speculation.

Practical Banking: With a Survey of the Federal Reserve Act

Ralph Scott Harris – 1915 – ‎Banks and banking

Conant, Charles A., History of Modern Banks of Issue, 5, 6, 8, 211, 220; 224, 228, … speculation in land the basis of crisis, 224, 225; rapid liquidation from April, …

Early National America 1790-1850 – Page 79 – Google Books Result

Tim McNeese, ‎Richard Jensen – 2010 – ‎Juvenile Nonfiction

In 1832, four years before the Bank’s charter was scheduled to end, Clay placed its … LandSpeculation. Leads. to. a. Crisis. With the Bank of the United States …

The Iron Age – Volume 93 – Page 606 – Google Books Result

1914 – ‎Hardware

FINANCIAL CONDITIONS NOT THE BEST The financial and commercial … and the land speculation undoubtedly has much to do with the commercial crisis.

Iron Age – Volume 93 – Page 606 – Google Books Result

1914 – ‎Hardware

FINANCIAL CONDITIONS NOT THE BEST The financial and commercial … and the land speculation undoubtedly has much to do with the commercial crisis.

Land Speculation and the Boom/ Bust Cycle – Understanding Economics

A variety of events have been associated with the onset of economic crises: natural … Henry George identifies the root cause in the speculative rise of land prices, which … In the run-up to the “Crash of 2008,” financial deregulation encouraged …

The Panic of 1837 – Boundless › … › The Van Buren Administration

The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis based on speculative fever: Inflation rose … the government was selling land for state banknotes of questionable value.

The Panic of 1819 – Boundless › … › The Monroe and Adams Administrations

The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United States and occurred … It was made worse, however, by land speculation and poor banking …

Panic of 1837 – Dictionary definition of Panic of 1837 | Encyclopedia …

With land speculation continuing rampantly Jackson issued the “Specie Circular” in … Unfortunately, this coincided with an internal financial crisis in England, …

J. B. Witham  all  RIGHTS RESERVED ©

The Birth Place of the Son of  Swamp  Fox

SEE  HERE FOR SOME  TRUE  Glens Fall’s  Area  History

The Last of the Mohicans, Cooper’s Historical Inventions, and his Cave

James Austin Holden
(University of the State of New York)*
Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the New York State Historical Association, October 3-5, 1916, Cooperstown, New York.
Published in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. XVI (1917), pp. 212-255.


The  Magical Fantastic  Dancing Surveys of  Queensbury and Warren County ……  The  REAL  HISTORY

Documentary History of New York

This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

The map which Doctor Holden supposed had supplied Cooper with his name for Lake George, was at the time believed to be one of the oldest maps of the province extant. It was engraved by Lucini, an Italian, and before the fire of 1911 was in the map collection of the New York State Library.19 It shows the “Horicans” at latitude 42 and inland from “the gulf of Plymouth.”20 Doctor O’Callaghan believed this map, though undated, to have been engraved about 1631.21More modern authorities, however, would place its construction around 1639 or 1635,22 or perhaps even a little later.

There were other old maps of the New England and New Netherland regions which might have been available for Cooper’s use, but even today some of these are scarce and rare, except in reproductions, so that their accessibility in 1826 is extremely doubtful.

Among them was Nicholas J. Visscher’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1655, which shows the “Horicans” located somewhere near Buzzards bay, not far from latitude 41 in southeastern Massachusetts, the “Moricans” near the mouth of the Fresh river, and the “Horikans” established toward the upper reaches of the Fresh (Versche), now called the Connecticut, river, between latitude 43 and 44. They, with the river, are placed, however, to the westward of Lake Irocosia, or Champlain, on the map instead of the eastward, as they should have been.

Here is an embarrassment of riches, where we have “Horicans” and “Horikans,” to say nothing of “Moricans,” to choose from,23 each one located many miles away from the others.

Next we have Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1656,24 which shows a tribe called Horikans on the upper reaches of the Versche (Fresh) river (the Connecticut) about opposite “Fort Orange” (Albany) and “Colonye.”

It seems strange that vander Donck did not describe the various nations named on his map, as he has given us a very good pen picture of the New Netherlands in his “Representation” of 1650, with a description of the “Fresh river.”25

Miss Cooper, in her introduction to the Houghton and Mifflin edition of Cooper of 1896, has tried to show that the Dutch writer, DeLaet, places the tribe of the Horicans near Lake George. I do not read the passage in the same way, nor do I agree with her conclusions.

De Laet says, in his New World, in chapter 8: “Next on the same south coast, succeeds a river named by our countrymen Fresh River [the Connecticut]…at the distance of fifteen leagues…nation is called Sequins. From this place the river stretches ten leagues, mostly in a northerly direction, but is very crooked;…the natives there…are called Nawaas. This place is situated in latitude 41º 48′. The river is not navigable with yachts for more than two leagues farther, as it is very shallow and has a rocky bottom. Within the land dwells another nation of savages who are called Horikans; they descend the river in canoes made of bark.” That is the present Connecticut river, not the Hudson.

Since preparing the foregoing the writer has been fortunate to find26 in the New York State Library a copy of the rare 1630 edition of DeLaet’s “Beschryvinge van west Indien.”27 In this the original passage runs: “Binnen in het landt woondt een ander natie van Wilden welck sy noemen Horikans, die dese rivier af komen met canoen van basten ghemaeckt.” This, A. J. F. van-Laer, New York State Archivist, has translated as follows: “In the interior of the country dwells another tribe of Indians whom they call Horikans, who come down the river in canoes made of bark.” This it will be noted closely corresponds with the rendering given in Jameson, it being kept in mind the river in question is the Connecticut of today.

In this old Elzevir edition are two rather interesting maps of collateral interest, on one of which,28 showing about latitude 45-46, are two unnamed bodies of water similar in shape to Lakes Champlain and George. Beyond these are two other bodies somewhat similarly joined together, one marked “Grand lac,” the other “lac des Yroquois,” On the other map, however, between latitude 43 and 46, are two bodies of water joined together to form “Lac de Champlain” and {“}Yroquoys,”29 which more nearly resemble in location and shape those we are familiar with.

It is plain from an examination of DeLaet’s description, therefore, that by no possibility of translation can the Horikans (with a “k”) be transferred except by force to the Lake George region30 from the Fresh or Connecticut River, down which “they descend in bark canoes.”

After describing the “Fresh” river, DeLaet gives a description of the “Great river” (the Hudson), as far as “Fort Orange” (Albany). He mentions the Mackwaes (Mohawks), the enemies of the Mohicans, but in no way describes the Horicans, as being located in this section, and certainly not in the vicinity of Lake George as Miss Cooper intimates.31 Had they been there, DeLaet would undoubtedly have mentioned them, as they would have been the natural enemies of the Iroquois, or Mohawks.32

The English publisher, John Ogilby, shows the “Horikans” on the upper reaches of the Versche river on his map “Nova Belgii Tabula,” 1670, in his folio atlas of America, but it is evidently copied from the earlier Visscher map, showing the same inaccurate placing of Lake Irocosia to the east of the Connecticut instead of the west and about opposite the latitude of “New Albany” and “Colonye” on the Hudson.33

In Louis Hennepin’s work, “A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America,” in the map at the beginning of the book, is shown what purports to be the region now known as northern New York. The map is neither accurate nor plainly indicated, but near the headwaters of the Hudson and Lake George and Champlain appears the name “Horican.” The query is: Did Cooper refer to this map or some of the others mentioned? Hennepin does not appear ever to have seen Lake Champlain or Lake George, his travels being in the western part of the State, in Ohio, the farther west and the south, and his information touching eastern New York was largely derived from others. His knowledge was second hand, although his map may be good enough for a novelist’s purposes. As a geographer, Hennepin has been rather savagely attacked by historians, and his text assailed as to its accuracy.34

On the subject of the Mahikans, Dr. W. M. Beauchamp has said: “The Mahikans were the most northern nation of the Algonquin family in New York, occupying both banks of the Hudson and for some distance west along its upper waters. Saratoga was once in their territory. They claimed the land for two days’ journey west of Albany and farther south their claim was good. Their southern limits were below the Catskills, and some place them still farther south. South of these were several small nations of this family, whose names and locations are somewhat confused.”35 It will be noted that Doctor Beauchamp, in assigning to the Mahikans an occupation so northerly, nowhere designates them as Horicans.

In considering this matter too, it must be remembered that the original inhabitants of the Lake George region were called “Adirondacks,” or tree-eaters. An old Jesuit Relation says in describing this region: “We find here also the Adirondacks, that is to say, eaters of trees. This name has been given them by the Iroquois in ridicule for their fasting while on the chase (hunting). It has been changed more slowly into that of Algonquins.”36 In neither Father Jogues Narrative nor any of the Jesuit Relations so far as examined does the name of “Horican” appear as a tribe, location or name in the Adirondack wilderness.

John Gilmary Shea has a plausible version of the name. In speaking of Lake George he says: “This is now called Lake George, after one of the worthy monarchs of the name. Some old map had Horicon for Hirocoi, and the misprint has been metamorphosed into a name for the lake….”37

Evidently Francis Parkman agreed somewhat with Shea, for in a footnote he says: “Lake George, according to Jogues, was called by the Mohawks Andiatarocte, or ‘Place where the Lake closes.’ Andiataraque is found on a map of Sanson. Spafford, ‘Gazetteer of New York,’ article ‘Lake George,’ says that it was called Canideri-oit, or ‘Tail of the Lake.’ Father Martin, in his notes on Bressani, prefixes to this name that of ‘Horicon,’ but gives no original authority. I have seen an old Latin map on which the name ‘Horiconi’ is set down as belonging to a neighboring tribe. This seems to be only a misprint for ‘Horicoui,’ that is ‘Irocoui,’ or ‘Iroquois.’ In an old English map, prefixed to the rare tract, A Treatise of New England, the ‘Lake of Hierocoyes’ is laid down. The name ‘Horicon,’ as used by Cooper in his ‘Last of the Mohicans,’ seems to have no sufficient historical foundation. In 1646, the lake, as we shall see, was named ‘Lac St. Sacrement.’”38

The name “Horican” disappears, so far as the writer has been able to discover, from the English maps of the eighteenth century, thereby leading to the supposition that the tribe was either amalgamated or absorbed by neighboring tribes, or had been conquered and made tributary in the numerous petty Indian wars in the latter part of the seventeenth and earlier part of the eighteenth centuries. In his earlier work, “The Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River,” E. M. Ruttenber places the Horicans at the headwaters of the Hudson. He, however, changed his views in regard to the tribe considerably when he prepared his “Indian Geographical Names,” published by this association in 1906.39 at this time he wrote: Horikans was written by DeLaet, in 1625, as the name of an Indian tribe living at the headwaters of the Connecticut. On an ancient map Horicans is written in lat. 41, east of the Narragansetts on the coast of New England. In the same latitude Moricans is written west of the Connecticut, and Horikans on the upper Connecticut in latitude 42. Morhicans is the form on Carte Figurative of 1614-16. and Mahicans by the Dutch on the Hudson. The several forms indicate that the tribe was the Moricans or Mourigans of the French, the Maikans or Mahikans of the Dutch and the Mohegans of the English. It is certain that that tribe held the headwaters of the Connecticut as well as of the Hudson. The novelist, Cooper, gave life to DeLaet’s orthography in his ‘Last of the Mohegans.’”

In fact, in an old map upon which the Queen Ann patent of the Kayaderosseras is based in 1708, what is now Hudson Falls is marked as “3 Falls” and Glens Falls as “4th Falls.”


17. From Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans, any late edition. Cooper refers here to the “Les Horicans. No map which I have yet seen, or which has been described by others, has this wording of the name. In fact a recent letter from the map division of the Llbrary of Congress says: In answer to the letter…concerning a map, oontaining the name Les Horicans as applied to the Mohlcans, I would say that the name “Horicans” or “Horikans~” oocurs on many early maps but I am unable to find one on which. “Les Horicans” appears…. De Laet’s map gives “Mahicans” with “Les Horikans” in the French edition, 1640. (Memorandum, P. Lee Phillips, chief, division of maps, Library ot Congress, November 6, 1917.) It seems so improbable that Cooper ever saw DeLaet’s Flrench edition, however, I am iforced to believe he made here a slip of memory~ or one of the pen, as he specifies a map in his preface, while DeLaet’s map does not contain the word “Horicans” at all. Again even in the DeLaet text the word is spelled with a “k” which Cooper does not use.

18. Beauchamp.

19. This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

20. E. B. O’Callaghan, The Documentary History of the State of New Yark. Albany, 1849, 8vo. ed., 1850, 4to ed., map to face title page.

21. Id. note to 4to edition.

22. P. L. Phillips, chief, division of maps and charts, Library of Congress, List of Geographical Atlases, v. 1, Washington, 1909, p. 214.

23. See map reproduced in colors In E. M. Avery’s History of United States, Cleveland [1905], v. 2, p. 246-47, insert; also id, in John Fiske’s Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., ed. 1903, op· p· 203-4, insert.

24. Reproductions of this map are shown in Collections of New York Historical Society, 2d series. New York, 1841, op. title page; in Justin Winsor’s Narrative and Critical History of America, Boston and New York [1884], v. 4, p. 439; in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, v. 6, 1906, op. title page, Indian Geographical Names, by E. M. Ruttenber; and in J. F. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664, Scribners Sons, New York, 1909, op. p. 294. Other reproductions of this map are listed in Winsor, v. 4, P· 438, note 4.

25. Collections of the New York Historical Society, 2d series, New York, 1841, v. 1. p. 125-243. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, p. 295-354.

26. Through the kindness of Peter Nelson in charge of the manuscripts section of the State Library.

27. Leyden, 1630, Elzevirs’ edition.

28. Op. p. 88.

29. See map marked “Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti.”

30. Hedges, United States Government ethnologist, is in error in his conclusions that the Horicons were “a people living on the head waters of the Hudson,” nor do his quoted authorities uphold his conclusions. Had he said head waters of the Connecticut, he might have been nearer the fact. Handbook of American Indians, North of Mexico, Washington, 1907, part 1. p. 569.

31. Miss Cooper’s introduction, P· XLIII.

32. See extracts from DeLaet’s New World, in Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1625, 1630, 1633, 1640-1, p. 43, 47.

33. Wlnsor’s Narrative and Critical History, v. 4, p. 392. Note “from Ogilby’s America p. 169.” A copy of this rare London

Atlas of 1671 is in the State Library at Albany and shows the whole of this map instead of the part of it given in Winsor. From from this it is clearly taken from the earlier Visscher map.

%d bloggers like this: