Farming results proved geologist Ebenezer Emmons partly wrong. A native of ….. Verplanck Colvin(1847-1920), a native of Albany, became the strongest disciple of. Marsh’s doctrines …… Gifford Pinchotand John Muir. The latter …… Robert Marshall and later Paul Schaefer stand out as two of the most ardent advocates of …
THUS WAS BORN THE WILDERNESS WILD CLASSIFICATION ….. JBW
In later reigns, it became a practice for kings to “forest” occupied areas. By virtue of “sovereign ownership” of all land, kings claimed the right to assert exclusive hunting privileges. Essentially, these were severed as a separate estate in the land and retained or granted severally. At one time, it has been estimated that almost one-third of the country had been converted into “royal forest.” by royal proclamation. Regulationof the hunting of game rested upon the theory of the Crown’s “sovereign ownership” of land and resources associated with it.
The Latin term “foris” actually referred toexclusion from the application of the ordinary lawand not to a wooded land. A separate system of “Forest Laws” and enforcement mechanisms were introduced by the Normans, which set forth permitted use and dealt savagely with violators. English common law, equity and associated rights did not apply to crimes committed in relation to “forested” lands.
The forest laws included such harsh penalties as execution or blinding for interference with the king’s beasts, especially deer and wild boar. The harshness of these laws and the enlargement of “forested” areas became one of the issues dealt with in the Magna Carta, limiting forest jurisdiction to lands as had existed in 1199 and denying the king the right to extend the borders. Forest provisions later became separated into the Parva Carta (Little Charter) or Forest Charter.
Map of the Adirondack Forest and adjoining territoryScale ca. 1:126,720. Cover title: Adirondack map, 1909. Relief shown by shading. Cadastral map showing public lands and adjacent private land ownership. Inset: Railroad and county map of northern New York. Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. AACR2: 650/1; 650/2; 710/2; 710/3
Contributor: Wood, M. O. – Smith, Glenn Shepard – Matthews-Northrup Company – New York (State). Forest, Fish, and Game Commission
The Colvins are a family of ancient English lineage, the first appearance of the name in English history occurring in the old chronicles, wherein it is stated that Colvin, Duke of Col-Chester, or Kaer-Colvin (“Col-chester” equivalent to “Colvin-town”), became King of Britain and rejected the authority of the Roman Emperor. The Roman general, Constantius, being sent against him with an army, a truce was made and Constantius married Helen Colvin, daughter of the king. The son of this union was Constantine, afterwards Emperor of Rome, and called “The Great,” who was the first Christian emperor.* [* See ancient English Chronicles of Britain (Grafton, 1568, p 86-87-88-89), and Peter Heylyn’s great “Cosmographi,” Kings of Britain, p. 273.] His mother, Helen, was the Saint Helena, of the ancient Catholic Church, so honored as the discoverer at Jerusalem of the remains of the “true cross” on which the Savior died, which facts may be found more fully brought out in Geoffrey’s [i.e., Geoffrey of Monmouth] British History, chapter vi., Grafton’s Chronicles; Heylyn Chronicles, p. 273.
except …. Ariaantje Coeymans, wife of David Verplanck, was the daughter of Barent Pieterse Coeymans, who purchased the enormous tract bearing his name. He was the son of Pieter Coeymans, also a miller, the progenitor of his family in America, who came from Utrecht in 1636, and he married the daughter of Andries De Vos. Barent, first owner of the mill at Coeymans, had litigation with the Patroon Van Rensselaer, because he had dealings before the Patroon with the native Indians for the tract of land measuring ten or twelve miles along the Hudson river. It was decided in Coeymans’ favor in 1714, and he obtained a patent from Queen Anne confirming the entire tract to him. Upon a commanding site, near the Hudson river, was erected the old stone mansion, the oldest building in the place, and still an object of great interest, once called the “Coeymans’ Castle.”
In 1820, Amos Eaton, a botanist, geologist and co-founder of Rensselaer Polytechnic … Eaton’s student, Ebenezer Emmons, a geologist and medical doctor, … Albany explorer Verplanck Colvin to lead a multi-year survey of the Adirondack region. … the Adirondacks and his first success came on May 15, 1885, when the NY.
Albany Institute for History and Art … Attributed to David Augur (1) · Attributed to Ebenezer Emmons(1821-1908) (2) ….. Albany-area resident or merchant (1) · Verplanck Colvin (1847-1920) (1) · Willem Hoffmeyer (1) … Attributed to Killiaen Van Rensselaer, III (1663-1719), Albany, NY (1) · Attributed to L. Marcotte & Co.
The purpose of this book is to assess the nature and degree of impact the Adirondack Park Private Land Use and Development Plan has had upon the economy of the Adirondack Park Region in New York State. This Plan regulates land use on the private areas within the Adirondack Park “blue line,” lands th…
World Governance Is Implemented with land Use Controls and…
Gorbachev told his Politburo in November, 1987:
“Gentlemen, comrades, do not be concerned about all you hear about Glasnost and Perestroika and democracy in the coming years. They are primarily for outward consumption. There will be no significant internal changes in the Soviet Union, other than for cosmetic purposes. Our purpose is to disarm the Americans and let them fall asleep.”
He later wrote:
“Those who hope that we shall move away from the socialist path will be greatly disappointed. Every part of our program of perestroika — and the program as a whole, for that matter — is fully based on the principle of more socialism and more democracy… We will proceed toward better socialism rather than away from it. We are saying this honestly, without trying to fool our own people or the world. Any hopes that we will begin to build a different, non-socialist society and go over to the other camp are unrealistic and futile. We, the Soviet people, are for socialism. We want more socialism and therefore more democracy.“63
“William set aside a vast deer preserve and imposed laws concerning it, so that whoever slew a hart or hind was to be blinded. He forbade the killing of boars, even as the killing of harts, for he loved the tall deer as if he had been their father…The rich complained and the poor lamented, but he was so stern that he cared not though all might hate him.” (at 135).
William established as forest or game preserve large tracts that embraced villages and wastelands as well as woods. On these lands no one but the king and those authorized by him – not even the barons who held the land – could hunt the red deer, the fallow deer, the roe and the wild boar. Hounds and bows were forbidden. Because foxes, hares, badgers, squirrels, wild cats, martens and otter were considered harmful to the deer and boar, rights of “warren” were often granted for hunting these smaller quarry. Dogs kept within the forest had to be “lawed” – three talons cut from each front foot.
By the thirteenth century, forest law was more strictly enforced in England than on the Continent. William I’s successors had extended the royal forest, although Richard I and John “deforested” large areas by opening them up to local lords in return for cash payments.
The Forest Charter under the Magna Carta codified Forest Law and set up a commission directed to make “perambulations” of the royal forest and to review forest extensions declared by Henry II, Richard and John, retaining only those that were legitimately within the king’s own demesne (personal properties.) When Henry came of age he forced a revision of the boundaries in his favor. These remained essentially the same until 1300, when Edward I was forced to deforest large tracts.
The Forest Charter designated the courts to enforce Forest Law. Local forest courts met every six weeks. Special forest inquisitions were held to deal with serious trespass with the royal forest eyre (circuit court) retaining ultimate jurisdiction. The local courts dealt with minor offenses to the “vert” – the greenwood of the forest: cutting; clearing; gathering dead wood, honey and nuts; allowing cattle to graze or pigs to feed on acorns or beechnuts. When a graver offense to the vert or a crime against the “venison,” (the right to hunt deer,) was committed, a special court was called to hear the case before the forest officers.The offender was either sent to prison until the next eyre or “attached” by other’s pledges to appear before it. Any evidence – arrows, antlers, skins, poachers’ greyhounds -was delivered to the forest officials to be produced before the justices.
Every seven years the forest eyre, made up of four barons and knights appointed by the king, traveled from county to county hearing the accumulated forest cases. Trespassers were brought from prison or produced by the sheriff. The foresters and other officers produced the record of special inquisition and the evidence. These were usually accepted as fact without further hearing and sentence was pronounced – usually a year and a day against the payment of ransom or fine. If the offender was poor, he was sometimes pardoned or if he had already spent a great deal of time in jail waiting, he was released. If he failed to appear, he was outlawed.
The law was designed to protect the venison and the vert, the “noble” animals of the chase – notably red and fallow deer, the roe, and the wild boar – and the greenery which sustained them. Royal forests were designed as hunting areas reserved for the monarch or (by invitation) the aristocracy.
Robert “Bob” Marshall (January 2, 1901 – November 11, 1939) was an American forester, … He had started his outdoor career in 1925 as forester with the U.S. Forest ….. 109 million acres (421,000 km2) to the National Wilderness Preservation System. … Written by Howard Zahniser—who died of a heart attack at age 58 four …
In an earlier column we printed a letter by Howard Zahniser, executive … area in the United States preserved as wilderness is the Adirondack Forest Preserve. … map of “Our Wilderness Preservation System,” a copy of which can be …. Communist China’s reputation is increasing at a rate of about 15 million persons per year.
He helped create the National Wilderness Preservation System, which now protects … exerted a significant amount of anti-wilderness pressure on our two states’ … Jon Tester, a Democrat, introduced his most recent draft of the Forest Jobs and …. From 1956 to 1964, Zahniser wrote 66 drafts of a federal wilderness bill that …
Howard Zahniser, executive director of The Wilderness Society for two … need “to know ourselves as the dependent members of a great community of life, and this … place 9 million acres into the nascent National Wilderness Preservation System. … We know that, according to the Forest Service, the miles of roads in national …
… to which its Director, Howard Zahniser had devoted five years of constant lobbying. … Robert Marshall, Benton MacKaye, and Aldo Leopold — all avowed socialists …. Another tell-tale characteristic of socialist/communist philosophy is the …
Chinese Wall [Camping trip in the Bob Marshall Wilderness] … Between 1956 and 1964, Senator Metcalf and Howard Zahniser, executive secretary of …. platform, Immunity Bill, and bill eliminating communist influence from trade unions, etc.
In the late 1930s, Wilderness Society co-founder Bob Marshall was among those … with organizations allegedly linked to communists.12 MacKaye himself did not go … with whose controversial leader, Howard Scott, MacKaye had been briefly … executive director of the Sierra Club, who collaborated closely with Zahniser; …
It REMAINS OBVIOUS THAT GLOBAL EXPANSION HAS ALWAYS BEEN DRIVEN BY DESIRE FOR RICHES AND WEALTH THROUGH CONTROL OF THE LAND